With the arrival of spring, a hot season begins for gardeners and truck farmers. It is necessary to prepare the beds for sowing, apply the necessary fertilizers, purchase seeds, seedlings and much more. To make it easier for themselves, experienced gardeners sow some types of vegetables and spicy greens before winter in order to get the first shoots as early as possible in the spring, and also to save their time and effort.
This spicy greenery is a frequent visitor to any personal plot. It is difficult to imagine spring salad, okroshka and other common dishes without dill. As soon as the ground is warm enough and the daytime temperature has reached positive marks, dill seeds will sprout friendly shoots. The depth of the autumn planting of dill seeds should be about 2-2.5 cm, the seeding rate should not exceed 3-5 grams per 1 square meter. When sowing dill, you can also use the fan method, in which the seeds are scattered over the soil surface, mixed with sand and mulched on top. The following varieties are suitable for this: "Gribovsky", "Aurora", "Tenderness", "Hercules" and others. Already in mid-May, you can enjoy the taste of fresh dill and get the first vitamins that are so necessary after a long winter. It should be borne in mind that dill emerges at a temperature of + 3-5 degrees, so in the autumn period you need to wait for a stable cooling so that the seeds do not germinate ahead of time.
Leaf and root parsley
Parsley for herbs and roots is also suitable for winter sowing. This method is even preferable for some regions of our country, as it can significantly save time and get an early harvest. The seeds of this culture germinate at a temperature of + 2-3 degrees and steadily tolerate small cold snaps, therefore, with the arrival of heat, the seeds will hatch and grow. When planting, the following recommendations must be observed: the distance between the rows is about 20-25 cm, the depth of seeding is 1.5 -2 cm. It is better to give preference to varieties with large leaves, such as "Ordinary Leaf", "Italian Giant", "Alba", "Kucheryavets", as well as "Curly" parsley. With the autumn planting method, the first leaves of this spicy culture will appear by the end of May.
This culture is also known as cilantro and has a characteristic smell and taste. It is widely used as a seasoning, especially for oriental dishes. This is a cold-resistant crop, when planting in autumn, seedlings can be obtained in early terms. The time for planting cilantro before winter depends on the region, but in any case, you need to wait for a steady cooling so that the seeds do not begin to germinate ahead of schedule. Seeds are planted to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, with a distance between grooves of 25 cm. Recommended varieties are "Shiko", "King of the Market", "Borodino", "Alekseevsky", "Yantar". They belong to early maturing, which guarantees resistance to lower temperatures. Cilantro is a fairly cold-resistant plant and can withstand frosts down to -5 C. Therefore, you can plant coriander before winter in order to get the first greens in March.
For sowing this vegetable crop before winter, the garden should be prepared in advance to give it time to settle. Sowing carrots can be started when the thermometer is around + 2-4 degrees. Seeds are sown, as in spring sowing, with a row spacing of about 20-25 cm, to a depth of 3-4 cm. Varieties that are suitable for wintering: "Nantes", "Karotel", "Zabava", "Incomparable" and others. In the fall, you can increase the seeding density by about 15%, taking into account the fact that some seeds may not sprout or they will be clogged by weeds. It should be borne in mind that the crop obtained in this way is less well stored, therefore, in order to ensure the necessary supply of carrots, it is also plant in the spring.
It is worth experimenting with planting seeds of various spicy greens in order to enjoy vitamins from the garden as soon as possible with the arrival of spring. For these purposes, you can use the seeds of watercress, arugula, cucumber, cumin, sage, or other herbs of your choice. A culture such as watercress emerges in a matter of days and in a week there is fresh greens on your table. It is impossible to determine a specific planting date before winter, since there is no need for a year. The main reference point is weather conditions: the period after the leaves have fallen from the trees, but the main, stable frosts have not yet come, is considered optimal for planting.
Leaf and cruciferous salads
All types of lettuce, as well as radishes, mustard leaves, Chinese cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables, are beneficial to plant before winter. These crops do an excellent wintering and withstand the changes in day and night temperatures, and as soon as the spring sun comes out, they will give amicable shoots. For spinach, there are two terms for winter sowing.
- The first one falls at the end of September, so that the plant has time to form small rosettes, which will hibernate in the future under a cover of snow. With the arrival of spring, the dormant plant will immediately begin to develop and after a couple of weeks you can enjoy the delicate greens of spinach.
- The second sowing should be planned for the end of November, when the weather is cold and the first frost has come. In the spring, spinach seeds will hatch together and begin to grow.
The main thing when sowing is to observe the same rule that was mentioned earlier: start sowing seeds only if the thermometer has settled at zero and below. The main advantage of sowing in autumn is that you can get an early harvest of vegetables and spicy herbs. Fresh vitamins from the garden are what the body lacks so much in spring.
Planting green manure before winter: a list of cereals and other recommendations
Green manure is a natural source of organic fertilizer. Crops are grown in a free area for the purpose of their subsequent plowing into the ground. The succulent aboveground mass and plant roots improve the structure of the soil, increase its fertility, enriching it with valuable microelements. Sowing is carried out at any time of the year, but green manures bring significant benefits before winter.
General rules for winter crops
For winter crops, it is not necessary to allocate a large plot of land. If the products are not for sale, but for your table, a garden with a total area of 5-6 sq. m. will fully provide a family of 4-5 people and vitamin greens, and early root crops.
It is better to choose a place for subwinter crops that is accessible, sunny, without a slope. Since the time to sow will come later (with the establishment of small frosts in the last decade of October, and in the south - November), it is better to prepare the land in advance. Back in August, fertilizer should be applied, the soil should be dug, leveled, and before frost (while the top layer is still not frozen), grooves should be made.
There is also a rule for seeding rates. Since the risk of loss (loss) of some of the seeds is inevitable, the rate should be increased by 25-50%. Sowing seed must be dry: after sowing, do not water under any circumstances.
Some gardeners do not practice podzimny, but winter sowing. This is also possible in January, February. This method is justified where unstable autumn temperatures can provoke early germination of seeds. However, in this case, it is necessary to have a supply of earth in order to sprinkle the frozen grooves. In the southern regions, this method is replaced by crops in January or February "windows", when the soil thaws, but does not have time to warm up enough to give the seeds growth.
After sowing, in order to better adhere the seed surface to the soil, it is recommended to compact the soil above the furrows. And for insulation - to mulch. In winter, you need to try to sketch on the ridges of snow. Early in the spring, cover them with a film stretched over arcs - this will allow the earth to warm up earlier, somewhat accelerate the germination and growth of sown crops, and protect the seedlings in the event of recurrent frosts.
For experienced gardeners, the sowing campaign of the past season is not over yet. Many amateur gardeners sow vegetables before winter in order to get an early (2 - 3 weeks earlier than with spring sowing) harvest of carrots, beets, turnips, greens and other vegetable crops in the spring.
It has long been noticed that vegetables sown in autumn grow larger, stronger, more juicy and tasty.
In addition, they are not damaged by numerous pests, since by the time of the appearance of harmful insects, the leaves of vegetable crops become coarse, and are no longer "tough" for pests of the garden.
We have already talked about how to prepare the beds and how to properly carry out winter sowing in our published article:
Today we will talk in detail about those varieties of vegetables that can be planted before winter.
The fact is that not all varieties are able to overwinter normally in the garden and in the spring to give friendly, strong shoots. It should be remembered that you need to sow first of all early and ultra-early varieties.
Under the warm rays of the spring sun, they will quickly grow and provide you with the very first harvest of high-quality vegetables and greens almost a month earlier than the same vegetables sown in spring.
WINTER SEEDING: WHEN AND HOW TO SEED
Timing. Recall that the most optimal time for podwinter sowing is considered to be the interval from November 15 to December 15. However, you need to focus not only on dates, but also on air temperature (0 ... -1 degrees) and soil (-3 ... -5 degrees).
It is possible to carry out podzimny sowing only in dry weather, exclusively - with dry seeds. Never soak them before planting.
Sowing preparation... For winter sowing, use only high beds (at least 50 cm), otherwise in spring the melt water will stagnate on their surface, but it is necessary that they quickly flow down.
These beds should be fully illuminated by the sun throughout the day, then vegetables and greens will ripen much faster than in diffused light.
It is best to use ready-made beds with metal sides. Then the slopes of the beds will not be washed out by water.
The soil in the beds should be very fertile, rich in organic matter, light, loose with a neutral reaction of the environment.
Form the beds, make 5 cm deep grooves on them, cover with plastic wrap and wait for the ground to freeze. Only then can you start sowing.
Sowing... When sowing in winter, increase the seeding rate by 1.5 times. Place a thin layer of compost mixed with fine sand on the bottom of the grooves. After sowing, fill the grooves with dry sand, and then with sawdust or straw in a layer of 7 - 8 cm.
After that, cover the entire bed with a double layer of spruce branches "with needles up" so that mice and voles do not get to the winter sowing.
CROPS AND VARIETIES FOR WINTER SEEDING
We told how to carry out podzimny sowing. But before we present you with the best varieties of vegetables from our collection, we want to warn you that root crops grown with the help of winter sowing are worse stored. And they are suitable primarily for summer consumption.
Carrot... Seeds are sown to a depth of 4 cm at an air temperature of + 1 ... + 3 degrees.
The next year, these varieties and hybrids of carrots can be harvested from the beginning of June.
Beet. Podzimny sowing of beets is carried out later, when the temperature drops to -3 ... -5 degrees.
The first crop can be harvested at the beginning of June.
Dill. Since dill begins to grow already at + 2 degrees, its seeds can be sown before winter only at stable negative temperatures.
In the spring, the dill is ready for cutting by mid-May.
Parsley... Before winter, you can sow both leafy and root varieties. Moreover, the root ripen even 1.5 months earlier than those sown in spring. Sow at an air temperature of 0 ... -2 degrees.
Leaf parsley can be eaten at the end of May, and root parsley in July.
Salad... Sow the lettuce at a temperature of 0 ... -2 degrees to a depth of 2.5 cm. We do not recommend sowing head lettuce in the fall. Limit yourself to sheet.
With proper care, you will taste the first harvest of lettuce sown in winter in early May.
Turnip... Sowing in the winter for this culture is just a salvation from the cruciferous flea, which will appear 3-4 weeks later than the early shoots of turnip.
When sowing into a groove to a depth of 4 cm, increase the seeding rate by 2.5 times, since with thickened sowing, turnip grows better.
Radish. Sow it at a temperature of 0 ... -4 degrees to a depth of 4 cm.
You will get the first harvest in the first decade of May.
Celery (petiolate). Sow at a temperature of -2 ... -4 degrees to a depth of 3 cm.
Varieties for winter sowing: Pascal, Supergreen.
The first harvest can be taken in mid-May.
Basil... It can be sown at temperatures of + 2 ... 0 degrees.
Cabbage. Sow it at a temperature of -1 ... -3 degrees to a depth of 5 cm.
Varieties and hybrids of red cabbage for winter sowing: Kalibos, Rebol F1, Red head F1.
You can use young cabbage for the first cabbage soup already in early July.
Cauliflower... Start sowing at a temperature of 0 ... -2 degrees.
You can read more about all these varieties on our website or in the "SEEDS 2021" catalog.
And you can buy them from us today.
Katran is a relatively new crop in our beds. Many people call it a cultivated version of horseradish. The roots of these plants have a similar appearance and taste, but katran, unlike horseradish, grows more compactly, and does not seek to drown out the rest of the vegetables in the garden.
Sowing this culture with seeds, or rather pieces of roots, is allowed only before winter. Being in cold soil, they undergo natural stratification. They are embedded in small grooves, up to 3 cm deep, and sprinkled on top with a thick layer of snow (20-25 cm). In the spring, young seedlings dive into the garden bed. It will be possible to eat the root and leaves of the plant only after three years, when the culture reaches technical maturity.
What crops can be planted before winter in the suburbs?
Podzimny plantings are widespread in the Moscow region. Their popularity is due to a number of advantages. Crops planted in autumn develop strong roots and accumulate more biomass than crops planted in spring. They grow faster, are less affected by diseases and pests, overtake weeds in growth. Successful underground planting requires meeting deadlines and using cold-resistant crops.
The climate of the Moscow region fully meets the requirements for winter crops. The height of the snow layer in the region reaches 35-40 cm. Snow falls at the end of October, and at the end of November a strong cover is already established. In winter, the soil freezes to a depth of 65-150 cm, which excludes premature germination of seeds and their subsequent death from early spring frosts.
For autumn planting, seeds obtained in the current season are preferable. As an exception, you can use the seed left over from the spring. Seeds with normal germination are sown in the usual amount. The seeding rate is increased by 10-20% only if the germination rate is low. By sowing good seeds more abundantly than usual, you can get overly dense shoots. Plants will oppress each other, lag behind in growth and development, which will negate the benefits of winter sowing.
Podwinter crops are placed on high, south-facing areas with moisture-proof, well-cultivated light soil. The beds are prepared in advance, while the weather is good. In the first decade of October, the soil is dug up, fertilized, leveled and ridges are formed, in which grooves of the required depth are cut. To prevent snow from covering the grooves, the beds are covered with roofing material, boards or plywood. It is best not to cut the grooves just before sowing.By this time, the soil is severely frozen and it will be impossible to carry out the work qualitatively. A little potting soil is stored in advance in a warm room so that there is something to cover the seeds lowered into the ground.
Seeds are sown when the temperature is set in the range of 0 ... -5 degrees.
Seeds do not germinate in cold ground, but hibernate. With the arrival of spring, when the soil warms up to the desired temperature, they come to life and start growing.
Not all seeds can survive the cold winter. Southern sissies - cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons, asparagus beans - are not sown in the fall, since their seeds will rot at a low positive temperature, which is established in early spring.
Most cold-resistant vegetables grow and thrive well after winter sowing. It is important to know that you cannot sow crops before winter intended for winter storage in vegetable stores and cellars. Plants are sown in autumn for processing and fresh consumption.
Winter garlic is a prime candidate for planting in the fall. In the spring it is not planted at all, since until that time it is not preserved. Spring garlic, on the other hand, is not suitable for autumn planting. When purchasing planting material, you need to be able to distinguish spring garlic from winter garlic. In spring, the teeth are small, arranged in several rows. Winter garlic heads consist of a single row of large cloves surrounding the false stem. The largest teeth are chosen for planting. Winter garlic takes root at a low positive temperature. In the Moscow region, it is installed by the end of September. After 3 weeks, the rooted cloves will safely hide under the snow, where they will wait for spring and the opportunity to throw out the leaves.
Tulips are planted simultaneously with winter garlic - the development cycle of these plants is similar
Everyone knows that garlic can be planted before winter, but not many people practice autumn onion planting. Now interest in winter onions has appeared both among farmers and among summer residents. Onions, rooted in autumn, start growing very early in the growing season, delighting with the harvest of bulbs already at the beginning of summer. When planting onions in winter, it is important to choose the right variety. Regular varieties during podzimnem sowing arrows. After overwintering in the ground, they will drive out the flower arrow instead of growing the bulb.
Table: Shooting resistant onion varieties suitable for winter planting
Average bulb weight, g
150-200 (when grown from seedlings)
Rounded and rounded flat
Flat round and rounded
Small onion sets with a diameter of up to one centimeter dry out when stored in an apartment. In the spring it has to be thrown away. It is more expedient to plant small bulbs before winter. Onion plants that have grown from a small seed planted in autumn do not shoot, but, on the contrary, give well-formed, large bulbs. Plant winter onions as late as possible. He only needs to take root before the onset of frost. In the Moscow region, onion planting begins in late October - early November. If the warm weather lasts longer than usual, the bulbs will sprout and die in winter. Winter onions are planted later than winter garlic, at the time when severe frosts are established. The garden bed is prepared in advance. They dig up the earth, break up the lumps, add compost (but not manure). Planting depth 3-4 cm. The beds are mulched with leaves or cut grass. In early spring, the mulch is removed so that it does not interfere with the development of onion feathers. Landing distance:
Sevok is sown in well-frozen soil
Podwinter beets ripen two to three weeks earlier than sown in spring. The main thing is to choose the right landing time. The earth should cool down to + 2 ... +4 degrees. According to popular beliefs, beets are sown before winter after the cherry leaves fall. You can focus on the soil - by the time of sowing, it should freeze through and only slightly thaw in the sun for several hours. For winter sowing of beets, early ripening varieties resistant to shooting are suitable:
- Incomparable А 463
- Cold resistant 19
- Polar flat
- Pablo F1
- Red ball.
Seeds are sown to a depth of 3-4 cm. The distance between the seeds is 3-5 cm, between the grooves is 30-40 cm. The seeds and soil must be dry. Crops are mulched with industrially produced peat-based soil or spruce branches.
Cabbage, turnip and radish belong to one family, all of which are characterized by high cold resistance, therefore they are suitable for autumn planting. Sowing in the winter avoids the hassle of growing or buying cabbage seedlings. Radishes and turnips are prone to flowering, so varieties that are resistant to shooting are selected. Suitable:
Winter potatoes are a rarity in the Moscow region, but enthusiasts plant this crop before winter and get good results. The tubers are buried to a depth of 20 cm in cold, but not yet frozen ground. The garden bed is well insulated with mulch. In the spring, the tubers will sprout and the plant will develop normally. Podzimny potatoes outperform in yield those planted in the usual way, do not get sick with late blight. For autumn planting, the Nevsky variety is recommended - a high-yielding, cold-resistant, disease-resistant variety.
Carrots and parsnips sown before winter ripen two weeks earlier than usual. Already at the beginning of summer, you can eat juicy bunch products, and sow radishes, lettuce, beets or green beans on the vacant garden bed. For winter sowing, early varieties are chosen, which acquire a sweet taste already at an early stage of growth. These include: Bureau, Napoli F1, Orange Muscat, Tuchkovaya, Victoria, Royal Chanson. Celery belongs to the same family as carrots and therefore has excellent cold resistance. Before winter, both varieties of this culture are sown - leaf and root. Podzimny root celery in the Moscow region is increasing root crops weighing up to 150 g. Carrot and celery seeds quickly lose their germination, so only material obtained in the current year is suitable for underground crops.