Magpie, Kvochka, Old Believers, White Queen and others ...
Homeland Luke consider the Middle East, from where he penetrated into Ancient Egypt. The pyramid of Cheops was built by tens of thousands of slaves. To prevent epidemics, they were given onions every day, according to surviving sources. Moreover, he made up a considerable part of the diet, because huge funds were spent on its purchase at that time.
Onions in ancient Rome were necessarily introduced into the ration of legionnaires in order to protect them from various diseases. The Romans believed that the bow gives not only strength, but also courage.
It was not only eaten, but also worn as a talisman. Just as numerous dry scales of an onion keep a delicate green sprout, the legend said, so an onion protects a warrior from adversity in war. Onion beliefs spread throughout Europe, it was believed that the bow protects soldiers from arrows, swords and halberds. Clad in steel armor, medieval knights hung an ordinary onion on their chests instead of a talisman.
Onions are very popular these days too, especially shallots. This bow in its characteristics is very close to onions... The only difference is that shallots have stronger branching, smaller bulbs and are stored much longer. Its bulbs are multi-primordial, medium-sized, 25-75 g, dense, depending on the type of spicy or semi-sharp taste. From one planting bulb, 6-12 bulbs can be obtained in the fall, and sometimes the number of bulbs in a nest can reach 20-25.
Shallots are juicier and more aromatic than onions; when used, they do not drown out the taste of other products. Shallot bulbs are suitable for drying and canningand some craftswomen use red shallots to dye woolen yarn a beautiful red color.
Plants of shallots are smaller than onions. The leaves are fistulous, narrow, bright green in color with a slight waxy bloom. The rosettes are low up to 30 cm, compact. The bulbs, depending on the variety, are oval, round or flat-rounded, there are elongated up to 10 cm.The color of dry scales is both white and creamy white, as well as from light yellow to violet-red, juicy scales - white, greenish to purple. Shallot is an early ripening culture. The bulbs mature 70-80 days after planting, and the greens can be used 25-30 days after planting.
Shallots are cold-resistant, light-loving culture. Prefers fertile soil. The best predecessors for it are legumes, pumpkin and green... In the fall, 5-6 kg of humus per 1 m2, 40-50 g of superphosphate, 200 g of wood ash are introduced into the garden before digging. Didn't have time to prepare the beds in the fall? In the spring, before planting the bulbs, add humus, ash and complex mineral fertilizer straight into the grooves.
Shallots are planted in autumn and spring, as it is a very cold-resistant crop. In the spring they are planted as soon as the soil warms up. For planting, it is recommended to use bulbs with a diameter of about 3 cm. In order to prevent diseases, the bulbs can be warmed up at a temperature of about 40 ° C for 8 hours before planting. The bulbs are planted to a depth of 5-6 cm, so that there is a 2-3 cm layer of soil above them. Too shallow planting often leads to bulbs bulging out of the ground, and too deep gives shallow bulbs.
The distance between the rows is 20-30 cm, between the plants in a row - 8-10 cm. After planting, the plants must be watered, and the ridges must be mulched. If the shallot bulbs are completely frozen in the fall, they thaw almost without damage. Maintenance consists of regular loosening and weeding.
Shallots are propagated more often in a vegetative way. For this, in the fall, after harvesting, the bulbs weighing 25-40 g are selected. The seeds of the shallot are small, their germination rate is low (50-70%). However, it should be remembered that long-term vegetative reproduction (within 5-7 years) leads to the accumulation of diseases, aging, and hence to degeneration. Therefore, they resort to growing renewed planting material from seeds or from air bulbs formed on peduncles.
To scare off the onion fly, which often attacks onions, carrots are planted along the edge of the garden, and plants with a strong smell are laid out in the aisles - tansy, wormwood, yarrow. Some gardeners water the plantings with a saline solution (1 tbsp. Salt per 10 liters of water) once a week from the beginning of the regrowth of the leaves until the beginning of July. The ridges need to be mulched and the soil near the plants is constantly loosened. Shallots are harvested from late July to mid-August, after the leaves have lodged. It is undesirable to be late in harvesting, the bulbs may begin to germinate, especially if the soil is wet.
During storage, shallots are much less susceptible to diseasesthan onions. The most common disease is bacterial bulb rot. Shallots are also good for getting greens in winter. When forcing the shallots on the windowsill, the bulbs can be reused. They are taken out of the container, cut across just below the middle, and again planted in the ground. This is how you get a double harvest.
There are not many varieties of shallots yet, but the best of them are: White asterisk - an unsurpassed variety in keeping quality; Kushchevka Kharkiv is an early-ripening multi-bud variety with large bulbs; Belozerets-94 - an early-ripening bottle-shaped, stagnant variety; Uralsky-40 - early elongated red variety; White Queen - ivory, large-fruited, productive, medicinal variety; Kuban is a dense, large-fruited, elongated, long-stored variety; Kubansky Kvochka - multi-primordial, lying, with beautiful pink-red bulbs; The shrike is an ultra-early ripening variety with long purple bulbs, a drought-resistant variety; Starorusskiy is a sedimentary variety with large red-violet bulbs of a rather large size; Old Believer - long-stored, high-yielding with beautiful, rounded, large bulbs.
Shallots are a valuable medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of activity. The ancient Russian herbalists describe the beneficial effect of shallots in a number of diseases. An expert on medicinal plants V.N. Nikolsky wrote many years ago: “In Russia, common people eat raw onions with bread, salt and kvass; it gives health, gives freshness to the complexion and preserves the teeth. "
A special taste, a pungent pungent smell gives the onion essential oil, which makes us cry. Onion contains a whole complex of vitamins: C, B1, provitamin A (carotene). Physiologists believe that for normal health, each person should eat at least 10 kg of the most common onion per year. Shallot phytoncides are deadly enemies of many bacteria. The volatile substances of this plant, its juices and extracts are detrimental to many types of microorganisms.
So grow shallots in your plots and be healthy!
I offer planting material for the above varieties of shallots, as well as spring garlic Orlovsky, Yelenovsky; 17 varieties of winter garlic, seeds, sets, samples of winter sweet onions Ellan, multi-tiered onions, as well as a large selection of varieties of tomatoes, sweet and hot peppers, various cucumbers, eggplants, corn, beans, peas, pumpkin, zucchini, cabbage, carrots, beets , sunflower, okra, flowers, medicinal and gingerbread plants and much more.
For orders, a detailed catalog is sent, to receive it, you need to send a large-format envelope with a return address and stamps for 30 rubles or a regular envelope with a return address, but I will send a short catalog in it.
Write: Brizhan Valery Ivanovich, st. Kommunarov, 6, stanitsa Chelbasskaya, Kanevsky District, Krasnodar Territory, 353715.
Valery Brizhan, experienced gardener,
- the type of shallots or Ashkelon onions in different regions of Russia and Ukraine can be called differently: family, shrike, kuschevka, potato
- crop production regulates
Federal Law 149-FZ "On seed production"
- seeds and planting material intended for sale must be registered in the state register (State Register of Breeding Achievements Permitted for Use)
- most outlets conduct trade in violation of the law, this applies not only to individual entrepreneurs, but also to large stores and agricultural firms
- prices for high-quality shallots are much higher than for ordinary, non-high-quality shallots 600-900 rubles / kg.
On this, dear readers, I end the article, written not as usual in the "academic" style, but in the form of a story from personal experience. It will be continued after receiving the parcel, where I will describe what came and in what form. Then I will tell and show how I prepared the beds and planted the varieties of shallots I have.
Popular varieties of shallots
Domestic and foreign breeders have bred many varieties of shallots. Among summer residents of our country, the following varieties of vegetables can be called the most popular.
A sweet variety that is especially appreciated by culinary experts. Has a mild and pleasant taste that does not clog other products and does not leave an unpleasant aftertaste.
Banana giant golden
Large-fruited variety with weighing heads up to 150 gr. It has excellent taste and tender pulp. It is considered one of the sweetest varieties. Great for cooking and keeps well even at room temperature.
Grows up to 15 bulbs. The heads are very small (about 3 cm). The husk is red. Taste qualities without frills.
Has, perhaps, the most pleasant taste of all varieties. Onion with a golden sheen. The pulp is white and juicy.
A prolific variety. With proper care, you can get about 4 kg of onions per square meter. The variety shows excellent keeping quality and can be stored for up to 3 years. Waiting out the winter well. It can be planted in the fall. The average weight of one head is about 50 grams, the maximum weight is up to 80 grams. Up to one and a half dozen bulbs grow in one hole. Good taste.
It has lilac outer scales and whitish inner ones. Early gives feathers to greens. The head is about 10 cm high and 2.5 cm wide.
Refers to mid-season. The bulbs are elongated, not too massive (a little over 20 grams). About 6-8 heads grow in one hole. Productivity - up to 3 kg. The pulp is light purple, the husk has a reddish tint. Stored for 9-10 months.
The bulbs are medium in size, but quite massive (about 60 grams). The shape is rounded, elongated at the top and in the area of the bottom. Coloring "classic", bright red. The pulp is snow-white. It has an average taste for shallots, but it has a stable yield and resistance to adverse conditions.
Differs in yellowish husk, elongated heads and average weight of fruits. It is one of the most delicious varieties, combining flavors of both onion and garlic. Popular due to its unpretentious cultivation.
It has a weighty bulb (up to 150 gr). Productivity - 4 kg per 1 sq. m. The husk has a dark, almost purple color. It tastes sweet.
A popular hybrid with a bright red husk. Grows well from sevka. Suitable for planting in spring.
Early variety. It tastes a little spicy. Rounded bulbs weigh about 20 grams. The color is brownish pinkish. The pulp is white, juicy. Emeralds are stored for almost a year, about 9-10 months.
A relatively new variety. Grown from seed. Bulbs weigh about 25 grams. The taste is spicy, almost like onions. The husk is yellowish, the pulp is juicy. It is stored somewhat worse than other varieties, only about 8 months.
Shallots - the difference from onions
Having cultivated it for many years, to my surprise, I recently learned that it is called a shallot. For us, he was just an onion, the same as a turnip, which I planted every year in the garden and every day I used it for cooking. And I did not notice much difference between onions and them. And it turns out that there is a difference.
- If a turnip grows in one bulb, then in shallots it grows in nests. One nest can contain from 4 to 10 pieces.
- There are differences in the shape of the vegetable itself. In the turnip, the shape of the root crop is round, slightly flattened vertically, and in the shallot, it is elongated. And the turnip is larger in size.
- Shallot is well stored all winter and by the planting season it has the same firm structure and does not germinate. But a turnip from a set, especially if stored improperly, quickly deteriorates, germinates and can rot.
- Shallots have a milder taste than onions. And when peeling a vegetable for slicing, it practically does not cause watery eyes. His feathers are more delicate and not so sharp.
The positive properties include cold resistance, it can be sown immediately after the snow melts. Some gardeners plant it before winter and at the same time grow its good harvest.
Although there is one, however, not a very significant drawback. It can hardly be cut into pretty rings, for example, to dress a herring. This is because in one shallot head there are embryos of 2-4 future onions.
Shallots cultivation: sowing or planting, on greens or head
Agrotechnology of shallots will not cause much trouble. Growing shallots is similar to growing onions. The culture needs a well-lit, quiet place with moderate humidity. Shallots respond well to loose, aerated, humus-rich soils with low acidity. When cultivating onion crops, summer residents recommend strictly observing crop rotation; legumes and melons are considered good predecessors.
The good neighborliness of onions allows it to be planted in the aisles of other crops, for example, carrots. Both plants enter into mutual symbiosis, scaring away harmful insects from each other.
Shallots can be planted in the spring months or before winter, in the fall. Perennial shallots are frost-resistant and winters well under a layer of snow.
Planting shallots in spring
Shallots are planted in the spring when the first snow melts.
The site is prepared in advance, in the autumn. The soil is dug up, fertilized with rotted organic matter (a bucket of 2 sq.m.) and nitroammophoska is added (55 gr.per sq.m.). It will not be superfluous to add "shrike" and wood ash before planting. In the spring, before planting, phosphorus, potassium are introduced into the formed ridges, and mixed with the soil.
Before planting, shallots should be soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate or in a fungicide for about 7 minutes. To get an early harvest of greens, it is recommended to plant sprouted shallots aged in a warm room with high humidity for two weeks.
The optimal size can be called an average onion of 3.5 cm. In a mass of 35-40 grams. Such planting material will give much more green mass and bulbs than smaller or large shrike bulbs. Small shallots give late harvests of "table-decorative" greenery.
To plant a “square” area, you will need about 35 medium sized calibrated onions. Shallots are planted in rows, 25-35 cm between them. Shallots are stuck in the moistened and enriched soil with the bottom down, in increments of 8-9 cm, deepening by 11-13 cm.In the southern regions, do not deepen the shallots deeper than 10 cm, since too deep planting increases the harvest time ... After planting, the bulbs are covered with soil mixed with wood ash (3: 1) and the beds are watered.
Plantings can be covered with lutrastil or mulch, for earlier shoots, and for distilling greens 1.5 weeks earlier, the tops of the pre-sowing material are cut off.
Planting shallots in the fall, before winter
When it is decided to plant shallots before winter, October or the first days of November (southern regions) can be considered the optimal time, given that rooting should take place before frost.
After planting, the beds are covered with peat or spruce branches for better wintering, and the flooring is removed in early spring. Onions without additional means of protection from the cold, can withstand a drop in temperature to -25 degrees, lower rates, can reduce onion yield by three times.
Growing shallots for greens
Shallots, grown for greens, outperform onions in that they do not shoot, have delicate greens and early ripeness. It can be stored for a long time without losing its taste and nutritional qualities. Not a large consumption of planting raw materials, subject to agricultural technology, will yield a harvest of greens, several times higher than the best varieties of onions.
Growing shallots for greens is carried out both in the open field and at home, in planting containers.
The early maturity of the shallot makes it possible to get fresh vigorous greens within a month after planting.
For planting, medium-sized shallots are planted in soil enriched with organic matter and mineral fertilizers, the soil temperature is +12 and constant moisture is important. At home, planting can be done at any time by placing containers with seedlings on a sunlit windowsill. In open ground, planting is carried out in the first decade of spring, when the soil warms up.
After a month, the crop is pulled out with the bulb, the greens are cut off, and the tops of the bulbs are cut off by 1.5 cm, and they are planted again in fertilized, moist soil and after a month and a half a new batch of greens is collected.
Growing shallots per head
To grow shallots per head, you should start planting in the fall, and in the summer you will get a fresh, juicy, onion turnip.
The agrotechnology of growing shallots per head does not differ from the usual autumn planting of onions. Shallot ripens in two months, and in addition to the head it will give a "green feather", the yield to seed ratio is at the level of 200%, which distinguishes this type of onion from the rest. The taste qualities of shallots differ from onions in a softer taste, and a small size is much more convenient to use for table purposes.
The best varieties of onions for greens - description and cultivation in the open field and in a greenhouse
- Full photo
Onions on greens
Choosing a variety for planting onions on greens
Growing onions for greens in the open field
Growing onions on a feather in a greenhouse
Top dressing and care rules
Green onion feather always attracts not only with its bright, attractive appearance with its juiciness, but also with the benefits that its constant use brings. Especially in early spring, it will support and save the human body from colds with vitamin C. What variety to choose for growing in a greenhouse and open field?
Diseases of shallots
The most dangerous disease of onions is cervical rot (gray rot). If you store the bulbs in a damp room, there is a high probability that the crop will become infected with cervical rot. The disease can appear even at the time of onion ripening in the open field. But if you store the onions in a dry room, the affected bulbs will dry out, preventing the disease from spreading to the rest of the crop. In humid air, infected specimens will become soft and watery.
Prevention of gray rot consists in adherence to agricultural techniques, which allows you to achieve timely ripening of the bulbs.
- It is advisable to plant shallots in their original place not earlier than after 3-4 years.
- Early planting should be done in moderately moist soils.
- The area set aside for planting onions must be well ventilated.
- It is worth observing the measure when feeding with nitrogen fertilizers.
- Watering should be stopped 3-4 weeks before harvesting.
Shallots are a very valuable vegetable, because they are not only healthy, but also provide a generous harvest of bulbs and greens. Therefore, be sure to plant it on your site - you will not go wrong!