Canada Lily Wildflowers – How To Grow Canada Lilies In Gardens

Canada Lily Wildflowers – How To Grow Canada Lilies In Gardens


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By: Mary H. Dyer, Credentialed Garden Writer

Also known as wild yellow lily or meadow lily, Canada lily (Lilium canadense) is a stunning wildflower that produces lance-shaped leaves and enchanting yellow, orange, or red, trumpet-shaped flowers in midsummer. Wondering how to grow Canada lilies in your garden? Read on to find out.

Wild Yellow Lily Information

Canada lily wildflowers, native to the eastern areas of Canada and the United States, are hardy plants that grow in USDA growing zones 3 through 9. The plants, which reach mature heights of 2 to 5 feet (0.5 to 1.5 m.), are commonly found growing along roadsides, in moist meadows, and woodlands, along streams, or in marshy areas.

The nectar from the fragrant blooms is highly attractive to hummingbirds, butterflies, and bees.

Canada Lily Propagation

Although it isn’t difficult to plant Canada lily seeds, expect to wait five or six years for the plants to bloom. Purchase seeds or just let the pods dry on the plant in autumn. Save the dry seeds for planting the following spring.

The easiest (and fastest) way to start Canada lilies in your garden is to plant bulbs, which are available at garden centers that specialize in native plants or wild lilies. You can also purchase Canada lily bulbs online.

Canada lily propagation can also be accomplished by dividing rhizomes or offsets.

How to Grow Canada Lilies in the Garden

Canada lily cultivation isn’t all that complicated. Canada lily wildflowers prefer sun or partial shade and loamy, slightly acidic soil, much like that of their native woodland homes. Good drainage is critical for successful Canada lilies. If your soil doesn’t quite fill the bill, mix several inches (5 to 12.5 cm.) of compost, mulch, or another organic material into the top of the soil.

Plant Canada lily bulbs twice their depth, which generally means each bulb should be covered with about 4 inches (10 cm.) of soil. Space the bulbs 12 to 15 inches (30.5 to 45.5 cm.) apart.

A layer of bark chips or other mulch does the plant a world of good. Apply mulch in late spring, and then, if possible, refresh the mulch in midsummer. You can also fertilize the plant at these times. Experts recommend using a fertilizer formulated for potatoes or tomatoes, which has all the nutrients required by lily wildflowers.

Water the area regularly at soil level to keep the soil moist but not drenched. Do your best to keep the foliage dry and beware of overwatering. Canada lily wildflowers thrive in moist, but not soggy soil.

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Scientific Name Lilium canadense L.

Plant Family Lily (Liliaceae)

Garden Location Upland

Prime Season Early Summer Flowering

Canada Lily is an erect native perennial lily with a single green, usually smooth, stem from 1 to 4 plus feet high. The stem is unbranched below the inflorescence.

The leaves are in 6 to 10 whorls on the stem, usually 3 to 12 leaves per whorl. They are held horizontal or slightly ascending with drooping tips. Leaves are about 6x longer than wide, up to 6 inches long, narrowly elliptic in shape, with a pointed tip and smooth non-wavy margins. The underside is frequently rough to the touch.

The inflorescence is a upright spike (a raceme) of 1 to 17 stalked flowers atop the main stem.

The flowers are hanging downward (pendant), not fragrant, with the flower stalks longest at the base of the raceme creating a pyramid shape when there are many flowers. The perianth of the flower is a bell shape with 3 sepals and 3 petals that look the same (commonly called 'tepals') and as the flower opens the tips flare outward curving backward a little, but not fully recurved like the Turk's-cap lilies also found in the Garden. The outside color is a yellow and frequently they is a bit of reddish tint at the tips of the tepals. They may also have some maroon spotting. There are 6 stamens, slightly exserted beyond the tepals with dull magenta colored anthers up to 1/2 inch long. The filaments of the stamens are quite parallel to the single style and barely spreading at the anthers. Both style and stamen filaments are the same color as the tepals.

Seed: Fertile flowers produce a 3-valved (chambered) seed capsule that is up to 2x as long as wide, which contains in each chamber, numerous small flattened seeds. These are wind dispersed when the capsule opens. Ruby Throated Hummingbirds have been observed as the prime pollinators of Canada Lily.

Habitat: Canada Lily is found in moist woods, wet meadows, stream sides, marshes, and open areas such as roadsides where there is moisture. It is found in the Upland Garden set back but visible from Prairie Path. Full sun is best for flowering. It grows from a yellowish rhizomatous flattened bulb than forms scales annually at the end of a creeping stolon. The creeping stolons allow vegetative reproduction. Seeds will germinate the following spring but growth the first year is entirely below ground. Flower coloration can vary from locale to locale as can the length of the leaves which can be from 2 to 10 x longer than wide.

Varieties: Over the years several botanists have defined several varieties based on flower color, leaf size, etc., particularly var. editorum and var. rubrum. Flora of North America (Ref. #W7) states "Field observations do not strongly support infraspecific splitting of Lilium canadense."

Names: The genus Lilium is derived from the Greek word 'lirion' for lily. The species name, canadense, means 'of Canada'. The accepted author name of the plant classification - 'L.', refers to Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist and the developer of the binomial nomenclature of modern taxonomy.

Comparisons: L. canadense is distinguished from the Turk's-cap Lilies, L. superbum and L. michiganense where the tepals reflex completely upward and the stamens and style extend well beyond the tepals. Comparison drawing below.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

Above: Examples of the pendant flower. The tepals spread outward at the tips, but do not reflex fully backward. Stamens and style are exserted with the magenta color of the anthers contrasting with the yellow of the tepals.

Below: This example shows how the pyramid shape of the inflorescence is created by the lowest flowers having the longest stalks.

Below: Comparison drawing of Lilium Canadense (1st drawing) and Lilium Superbum (2nd drawing. Both drawings from Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Below: This specimen was photographed on July 6, 2017.


17 Types of Lilies You'll Love to Grow in Your Garden

With riotous color combos and sweet fragrance, these magical blooms belong in every garden.

Lilies are perhaps most well known for their intoxicating fragrance (oh, the sweet scent that comes from just a single bloom!). But beyond their famous scent profiles, there are lots of other reasons to love the popular perennial. Their stunning rainbow range of riotous colors and interesting shapes and sizes make these hardy flowers a dream for any gardener or flower arranger. Plus, they hold their own when planted with other best perennial flowers and plants, best flowers that bloom in summer, and other best flowers you should have in your garden.

Once you start digging into the wide world of lilies and how to grow and care for lilies, you'll learn all sorts of interesting facts about the different varieties. Did you know that all species of lilies fall into one of nine hybrid divisions, including Asiatic, American, Oriental, and more? Or that some 'lilies' aren't really lilies at all (we're looking at you calla lily, waterlily, and daylily)? Probably not—most people's knowledge of lilies begins with and ends with Stargazer! While these classifications are important for true lily connoisseurs and budding growers, if we're being honest, we're here for the pretty. Oh, and the lily's magical ability to feel nostalgic (Grandma's garden) and contemporary (modern bouquets) all at the same time.

Read on for the 17 types of lilies we just can't get enough of.

This bright pink beauty is a choice lily for floral arrangements and also a stunner in the garden.

Division: Oriental hybrid

This variety boasts apricot-hued petals and can stand up to high temperatures. It's a solid performer in the garden and in containers.

Division: Trumpet hybrid

Stargazers are one of the most popular, sensational, and mainstream lilies out there. They possess a strong fragrance, making them favorite cut flowers. Bonus: They attract butterflies!

Division: Oriental hybrid

White as snow with intense fragrance, this classic is a lily fan favorite. It's a popular choice for bridal bouquets. (Attention brides: Snip off the pollen to avoid dress stains!)

Division: Oriental hybrid

This flower with statement-making orange petals and dark spots is a garden favorite. It's important to note that it is poisonous to cats before planting.

Division: American hybrid

Similar in pattern to the Stargazer lily, this variety is a lighter, softer version of the more vibrant crowd favorite.

Division: Oriental hybrid

Gorgeous golden blooms with tiny black spots in the center were originally developed for growing in pots but can be grown in beds as well. Their "dwarf" characteristics make them a nice choice for the fronts of borders.

Division: Dwarf Asiatic hybrid

With a semi-double bloom making it twice as special, this baby pink flower with tiny maroon spots has another attractive quality—it's pollen-free, making it an ideal candidate for bouquets.

Division: Asiatic hybrid

The tango lily's characteristics include a two-toned petal with a high-contrast spatter effect. The deep purple-and-ivory version is shown here.

Division: Asiatic hybrid

Still used to decorate church sanctuaries at Easter, these lilies can be planted outside in the ground as well. These elongated trumpet-shaped flowers boast a perfume-y scent.

Division: Longiflorum hybrid

Deep, saturated shades of orange and purple make this flower a summer garden standout.

Division: Asiatic hybrid

This cheerful two-toned flower is a nice bridge between white and pink blooms in a garden bed.

Division: Asiatic hybrid

Lilium canadense, also known as the wild yellow-lily or meadow lily (because it's often found there), has downward-facing flowers that are yellow on the outside with a contrasting maroonish coloring on the inside.

Division: American hybrid

These unique blooms are easily recognizable for their curved petals and downward-facing position.

Division: Martagon hybrid

The history of lilies can be traced back about 4,00o years to this very flower. It's notable for this fact, as well as its simplicity and purity.

Division: Candidum hybrid

Easy to grow and early to bloom—we're hooked already! The name "pixie" alludes to their smaller stature, making them a good candidate for container gardening.

Division: Asiatic hybrid

Boasting enormous flowers (up to 6 inches!), these impressive blooms are real showstoppers. Golden centers (also called throats) and pretty magenta stripes on the outside add interest to the otherwise white petals.

Division: Species and cultivars of species


Wild Lilies - Knowledge Base on the Lilium Species

This is only a partial list of Lilium species, to see more of the Wild Lily Knowledgebase CLICK HERE to be directed to our main website (www.bdlilies.com) Note: This database is public service only, not part of our on-line store.

Wild Lily bulbs making up the genus Lilium belong to the family Liliaceae comprising of approximately 200 genera made up of approximately 2,000 lily species. There are in the neighborhood of 110 to 120 lilium species depending on whose classification you reference. During the past few years, a number of “new” Lilium species have been exported out of China from wild stands of lily bulbs, many still waiting to be properly classified. To think that every river valley or mountain side has been explored and there is nothing left to find is a mistake, opportunities still await the plant adventurer. (To view photographs as a group, without the written descriptions, go to Lily Species Photo Gallery You can click on any photo for more details, useful if you are trying to identify a variety you have growing in your garden.)

As with so many familiar plants in our gardens, we often wonder, where they came from and how were they created into so many lovely and varied forms. As we trace ancestral lines back on every lily hybrid, we eventually find that its origin was two species, sometimes a cross made by nature herself, but more commonly, one made by man. We find a wonderful array of color and flower forms in nature’s creations. A journey back to the lily species that made your hybrid bulbs will lead you across the entire Northern Hemisphere. From the plains, mountains, and swamps of North America to the sub-tropical jungles of Burma the harsh regions of Siberia to the rolling grasslands of Greece and the plains and valleys of all Europe to high in the Himalayas to the stormy beach grasses of northern Japan. We find tiny dime-sized dangling flowers to huge blooms, the size of a dinner plate. In the lilies of the wild, gardeners find nature’s full rainbow of colors, white, pink, red, orange, yellow, and cream, but no blue tones, the genetics are simply not there.

Many gardeners after having grown and marveled at hybrid lily bulbs begin to wonder about the original species, endeavoring to include them in the garden. As the years have passed, commercial growers of lilies have mostly taken pure species out of their production fields. In the first half of the 20th Century, catalogs specializing in lilies were full of species offerings as there were few hybrids available. Most of these came by way of English, Dutch and German growers.

In the United States, the name Edgar Kline was synonymous with where to go for Lilium species. With the increased number of new hybrids requiring less toil in the garden, purity gardens with only wild collected or nursery propagated lily bulbs started to be forgotten. With the end of the 20th Century, as more and more gardeners began seeking the simpler times of the past and a return to their “roots” so to speak, a renewed interest in Lilium has occurred. As interest once again grows, the specialty grower is faced with “do I invest seven to twelve years to get crops up to numbers and size and will there still be a demand fifteen years and beyond if I do?” Yes, perhaps now, Lilium pumilum at four dollars each will be popular, but what about Lilium kelloggii , Lilium ciliatum , or Lilium ocellatum at twenty dollars per bulb?

Unfortunately, species lily bulbs commonly found just a mere twenty five years ago are virtually unheard of now by even the most avid gardeners. Even more tragic is the destruction of so many native stands worldwide in the name of progress. It is safe to say that we will never again see the availability of these rare beauties for the garden that our parents and grandparents enjoyed. Unfortunately, the wild lilies fell by the wayside for the less temperamental and nearly foolproof hybrids for a new generation of gardeners.

Requiring much more attention and time, it finally comes down to what is cost effective for the commercial grower and what is not. Though there is a constant and steady demand for the species, it is not great enough to “pay the bills”. Those specialists still producing Lilium species bulbs are the people who are willing to spend sometimes as many as seven or eight years to produce a flowering size bulb from a seed and then another couple years to get some size on the bulbs so they will produce multiple flowers after being moved to their new garden home. As a result of this investment of time, we must expect and be willing to often pay dearly for their efforts to include these rare marvels in our gardens.

Recently, several species not seen in the market place for many years are now being produced from a few small growers in Holland. The downside is that they are being marketed no differently than hybrid garden lilies and failure rates are high. Lilium cernuum along with the white colored variant ‘candidum’ as well as Lilium nepalense have very exacting requirements for successful growth. Unfortunately the catalogers often promoting themselves as “experts” are not propagators but are merely jobbers and do not provide proper growing instructions. It is easier to offer “no guarantee” for successful growth than to take the time to learn about what they are buying from brokers for resale. In the case of both the above mentioned species, each has one very simple, though different, “secret” for success. Not being actual propagators of these lily bulbs, they have no idea as to the secrets of success and are unable to properly instruct their customers.

Before you decide to try your hand with the wild ones, it is best to become familiar with their special requirements. Varieties such as Lilium henryi , Lilium speciosum , Lilium auratum , Lilium pumilum , Lilium superbum , Lilium canadense , Lilium pardalinum , Lilium regale , Lilium bulbiferum , and Lilium dauricum , are considered to be quite easy and will forgive you, as with most garden hybrids, if conditions are not exact from year to year. Unfortunately the number of forgiving Lilium species is quite small. Once having grown and succeeded with these and armed with the confidence of success, you may want to venture out into the slightly more difficult. Lilium amabile , Lilium monadelphum , Lilium szovitsianum , Lilium concolor , Lilium hansonii , and Lilium tsingtauense .

All lily bulb species have special needs and with some preparation, most of us can find that special place in our garden that offers a chance at success. To start, a soil with porous gravel subsoil, permitting the essential sub drainage that species require and have in nature is a must. This is the first and a key element, but not the final answer. EVERY species has its own, special requirements for success. One of the aims in the successful cultivation of lily bulb species is to provide a deep and cool root run that will store the necessary moisture, but one that will not hold excessive amounts of water during their resting period in late fall and through the winter.

You must mimic nature as closely as possible if you are to expect even marginal success with the more difficult subjects, and again, providing the proper soil mix is only the beginning. In nature we find most species with their heads in the sun, and a low growing, native ground cover keeping the bulbs cool. Their need for an accompanying, protective ground cover in most cases is essential. Venturing out further than this requires planning, a great deal of care, and a gardening spirit that is not easily dampened by failure. Those that succeed are the ones that don’t see a loss as a failure, but see it as a learning experience. Some species have foiled even the most knowledgeable of horticulturists in the most prestigious botanical gardens in the world.

Following, we have given some very basic growing requirements for each species. For those interested in learning more about the species, we recommend ‘Growing Lilies’ by Derek Fox published by Croom Helm Ltd, Provident House, Burrell Row, Beckenham, Kent, England BR3 1AT, ‘Lilies’ by Patrick M. Synge, Universe Books, 381 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10016 as well as ‘Lilies’ by Ed Mcrae. These books can often be found by doing web searches. All are out of print and can be, like the ‘Synge’ book, rather expensive.

The photos shown for each species are offered as the best example we have of color and flower form. The flowers of many wild lily bulbs have colors that vary in hue as well as spotting patterns, even within the same colony, let alone natural colonies that may be separated by hundreds of miles. Most photos shown were taken of stock plants over the years at our nursery unless otherwise noted. No, there are not commercial quantities of most of these available. Some photos came from lily friends while some that had no labeling other than to say, “in Bunny’s garden”, which has left us wondering who sent them to us after years of being in storage. Some have faded with time but do still have merit in giving an overall view of each flower. There are many private gardeners out there with far more experience with the native lilies, and we would welcome the inclusion of any photos they may wish to share, along with firsthand experience and cultural information.

We planted our first Lilium species back in 1975 and have gone from a time with nearly 100 types and color variants to periods of only a handful. In our fall 1986 catalog for example, we offered sixty-three species selections, from one year tissue culture bulblets to mature flowering size bulbs.

Unfortunately the species lilies now are only a hobby, not a mainstay. B&D Lilies was begun at a time when the pioneers of our industry were still with us and species were plentiful. We are thankful to those early pioneers for befriending us and sharing their knowledge, love and enthusiasm for the wild lilies. This is not meant to be in any way a definitive work on Lilium , but is in response to many customer inquires over the years concerning these wonderful works of God and their wishes to view photos.

The species lilies shown below, for the most part, have either been grown here at our nursery or by acquaintances over a period of more than three decades. Where there was a choice of using a photo of a nursery grown plant or one tracked in the wild, we have opted for the photo taken in the natural habitat. Or in the case of Lilium Alexandrae for example starting off the photo gallery the photo given us by Ed McRae was by far the best example of this species, far surpassing our nursery photo. We especially thank Ed for freely sharing over many years, his firsthand knowledge and contagious love of the genus lilium.

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Popular Lily Varieties Based on Color

Here is a list of over 50 popular types of lilies, both species, and hybrids, with pictures and basic information:

A) Types of White Lilies

1. Philippine Lily (Lilium philippinense)

A rare species, considered endangered, thriving only in the high altitude regions of Cordillera Central mountains in Puerto Rico. Blooms in May.

Height: 5-6 feet

Flower Type: 4-5 inches long trumpet-shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 10-11

2. Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum)

One of the best-known species in horticulture, it can be grown both outdoors and in a container. Flowers in July-August, but potted plants may be ‘manipulated’ to bloom at other times, typically during Easter.

Height: 3 feet

Flower Type: 5-7 inches long, cylindrical

USDA Hardiness Zone: 6-9

3. Madonna Lily (Lilium candidum)

Cultivation of this variety goes back to at least 3,000 years, with the flowers appearing in multiple religious documents and artworks including the Bible. Blooms in late spring to summer with long-lasting blossoms.

Height: 4-6 feet

Flower Type: Trumpet-shaped, 2-3-inches, growing in bunches of 10-20 units at the top of the stem

USDA Hardiness Zone: 6-9

4. Regale/Royal (Lilium regale)

Easy to grow, this plant can tolerate almost any soil and climate conditions, except waterlogging. Suitable for a container plant as well.

Height: 4-7 feet

Flower Type: 6-8 inches long, trumpet-shaped, slightly curved with strong fragrance

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

5. Lady Alice (Trumpet/Aurelian)

Winner of various gardening awards, it grows extremely showy white orange flowers.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 3-4 inches, Lightly fragrant, semi-turk’s cap shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

6. Patricia’s Pride (Asiatic)

Medium-sized plants are suitable for container planting, as well as outdoor gardens, especially borders and hedges.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 4-5 inches long, upright, open blooms

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

7. Casablanca (Oriental)

Often regarded as the most striking Oriental white lily variety, the wonderfully scented flowers make excellent cut flowers. Can be grown as container plants as well.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: Around 7 inches wide, upward-facing, open, star-shaped, with slightly curved petals

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-10

B) Different Types of Pink Lilies

1. Nodding Lily (Lilium cernuum)

Needing less care than some of the other species, it does well in loamy soil with sufficient sunlight. The flowers, blooming in summer are mostly pink, but maybe white to pale purple as well.

Height: 2-3 feet

Flower Type: 2-3 inches, recurved Turk’s cap styled, down-facing

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

2. Jersey Lily (Amaryllis belladonna)

Thrives in any well-drained soil when planted at a sunny spot, flowering during late summer to fall. Scented flowers appear before leaves, growing in groups of 2-12 on each stem. The plants go dormant in winter, reappearing the following summer in warm climates.

Height: 2-3 feet

Flower Type: 2-4 inches, outward-facing, open, growing in the direction of the sun

USDA Hardiness Zone: 7-10 (can grow as an annual plant in other zones)

3. Acapulco (Oriental)

Originally meant for the cut flower industry, these vibrant lilies have grown popular among gardeners as well. Produces up to 5-6 flowers per stem.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 6 inches or larger, outward-facing, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-10

4. Elodie (Asiatic)

Each stem produces 5-6 sterile flowers of a pastel pink shade and a soft, pleasant fragrance. The scent is not overwhelming, making it a good option for allergic people.

Height: 2-3 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, outward-facing, double flower (May produce single flowers in the first year)

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-10

5. Stargazer (Oriental)

Considered as the most popular and visually appealing Oriental variety, it produces 4-8 flowers per stem. Regarded for its strong fragrance, but some people find it too sweet to like.

Height: 2-3 feet

Flower Type: Over 6 inches long, upward-facing, fragrant, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

6. Altari (Orienpet)

Available to grow to different heights, it is suitable for outdoor planting as borders in larger gardens for a touch of color as well as providing privacy.

Height: 3-5 feet

Flower Type: 6-12 inches, slightly recurved, out-facing, wide open

USDA Hardiness Zone: 5-9

7. Lollypop (Asiatic)

Ideal for a container plant, needing repotting once every 2-3 years. Needs excellent drainage and lots of sunlight, but can grow in partial shade too. When planted outdoors in favorable conditions, it multiplies pretty fast.

Height: 1.5-3 feet

Flower Type: Upward-facing open blooms

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-10

8. Starlight Express (Oriental)

Dwarf variety suitable for container planting. Also good for flower beds and low borders, as it produces up to 15 flowers in each stem.

Height: 1-2 feet

Flower Type: 6-7 inches, upright, fragrant, slightly recurved with ruffled edges

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

9. Tom Pouce (Oriental)

Another striking variety, growing 5-10 pink-yellow flowers on tall stalks. A nice option for small gardens as the pleasant scent travels through the air without being overwhelming.

Height: Up to 3 feet

Flower Type: 6 inches or larger, wide-open, outward facing

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

10. Silk Road (Orienpet)

Tall plants ideal to be planted as borders, or in front of windows for best enjoying the long display of attractive flowers over several weeks, while getting some privacy.

Height: 4-6 feet

Flower Type: 8 inches, slightly recurved, sideways facing

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

11. Anastasia (Orienpet)

A high-yielding variety, growing 20-30 flowers on each plant, with an extended blooming season of several weeks. The pink color of the flowers deepens in colder weathers.

Height: 4-7 feet

Flower Type: 7 inches, slightly recurved, sideways or downward-facing

USDA Hardiness Zone: 5-9

C) Orange and Peach Lilies

1. Tiger Lily (Lilium lancifolium)

One of the most recognizable types, it can grow in moist acidic soil with full to partial sun exposure. The flowers are non-fragrant, but extremely showy, blooming in summer.

Height: 3-6 feet

Flower Type: over 6 inches, down-facing, recurved or Turk’s cap shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

2. Michigan Lily (Lilium michiganense)

Sometimes confused with Turk’s cap and tiger lilies for similar-looking flowers, it is considered threatened in many US states. Can grow in different soils with enough sunlight. Non-fragrant flowers bloom in summer.

Height: 2-6 feet

Flower Type: 3 inches, down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

3. Columbia Lily (Lilium columbianum)

Aa attractive wild lily species, it is not as common as some of the other wild varieties. Grows in well-drained moist soils, blooming in late spring to early summer. Flowers are lightly scented.

Height: 2-4 feet

Flower Type: 2-3 inches, down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 5-9

4. Fire Lily (Lilium bulbiferum)

Grows in any well-drained soil as long as it gets a lot of sunlight though, cannot tolerate drought conditions. Blooms from late spring to summer, with 6-7 flowers on each stalk. Dwarf cultivar is suitable for container planting.

Height: 2-4 feet

Flower Type: 2-3 inches, upright, wide open

USDA Hardiness Zone: 6-9

5. Alpine/Sierra Tiger Lily (Lilium parvum)

Grows is moist well-drained soil, and naturally hybridizes with any other lily species growing nearby. Blooms around midsummer, in clusters of 6-7 flowers on each stem.

Height: 2-6 feet (sometimes up to 8 feet)

Flower Type: Smaller than 3 inches, side-facing, open, bell-shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

6. Turk’s Cap (Lilium superbum)

Has high care requirement, even higher than other species lilies. Prefers well-drained, moist soils with lots of sunlight, but can grow in other soil types. Good cold tolerance.

Height: 3-5 feet

Flower Type: 5-6 inches, down-facing, pendant, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

7. African Queen (Trumpet)

Blooms mid to late summer, producing 20-30 flowers in each stem for long display season.

Height: 3-6 feet

Flower Type: 6-12 inches, side/out- facing, trumpet-shaped, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

8. Forever Susan (Asiatic)

One of the most attractive types with its unique orange-plum color. Suitable for small to large gardens as borders, as well as for cut flowers

Height: 2-3 feet

Flower Type: 4-5 inches, upright, wide-open, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

9. Gluhwein (Orienpet)

Soft peach colored blooms with their wonderful fragrance are excellent for summer gardens. Flowers are sterile, and plants do not produce seeds.

Height: 3-5 feet

Flower Type: 6-12 inches, out-facing, wide open, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

10. Tiny Double You (Asiatic)

Dwarf variety, winter-hardy, ideal for container planting, but can be grown outdoors as well. Striking orange double flowers make good cut flowers.

Height: 1-1.5 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, upward-facing, double flowers

USDA Hardiness Zone: 2-9

D) Types of Purple and Black Lilies

1. Martagon Lily (Lilium martagon)

An award winning species lily, the sweetly scented flowers may vary from white and light pinkish purple to deep violet. Can grow upto 30-40 flowers per stem in each blooming season. Does well in slightly alkaline well-drained moist soil.

Height: 3 to 7 feet

Flower Type: 3 inches or smaller, down-turned, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3 to 10

2. Toad Lily (Tricyrtis hirta)

Medium-sized plant from Japan, the small spotted flowers remind you of orchids. The plants need partial to full shade, and soil that remains consistently moist and well-drained. Self-seeding plants will multiply over time, but are not invasive. Blooms in early to late fall. Suitable for borders and sidewalks.

Height: 2-3 feet

Flower Type: 2-3 inches, upward-facing, wide open, star-like

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

3. Night Rider (Asiatic x Trumpet)

A relatively new caltivar, the deep purple to black flowers have a mild scent. Due to their vivid color, the large flowers stand out, adding to the character of your garden. Blooms from early to mid summer.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 6-7 inches, out-facing, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

4. Pink Perfection (Trumpet)

Tall plants with a stunning display of 15-20 large flowers on each stalk, creating a nice contrast with the narrow dark green leaves. Plants are quite hardy and disease-resistant.

Height: 4-6 feet

Flower Type: 10-12 inches, trumpet-shaped, somewhat down-facing, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

5. Landini (Asiatic)

One of the darkest varieties that produce 5-6 large flowers on each stalk. The blooms are rather long-lasting, with the medium to tall plants being suitable for most gardens.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 6-12 inches, upright, wide open

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

6. Night Flyer (Asiatic)

A cultivar of tiger lily, the dark purple flowers are dotted with black, making it one of the most striking Asiatic lilies. Can produce up to 12-15 flowers per plant.

Height: up to 4 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, recurved, down-facing pendant flowers

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

E) Red Lily Flower Types

1. Golden Apple/Carnic Lily (Lilium carniolicum)

Deriving its name from the historical region of Carniola, these lilies may also be orange to yellow with black dots. Blooms in early to mid summer.

Height: up to 2 feet

Flower Type: Around 3 inches, down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 5-9

2. Canada Lily (Lilium canadense)

Unscented, primarily grown for its showy flowers that grow in groups of 5-6 on each stem. Blooming season is between late spring and mid-summer, lasting about three weeks.

Height: 3-6 feet

Flower Type: 3 inches or smaller, down-facing recurved pendant flower

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

3. Wood Lily (Lilium philadelphicum)

One of the most widespread native lilies, it can grow in various dry to moist soils having full sunlight to shade. May take about 4-5 years to flower after planting. Non-fragrant flowers bloom around mid-summer to early fall, 3-5 on each stalk.

Height: 1-3 feet

Flower Type: 3 inches, upward-facing, wide-open, star-shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

4. Gray’s Lily (Lilium grayi)

A rare lily, with its native habitat threatened by grazing animals, it grows in full sunlight and cannot tolerate extreme cold. Blooms early in summer, each stalk can grow up to 5-6 flowers once established.

Height: 2-6 feet

Flower Type: 2.5-3 inches, down-facing, trumpet or bell-shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

5. Black Beauty (Orienpet)

Marked by a characteristic green star pattern inside the pendant flowers, an established plant can produce over 60 flowers each season. Tall plants good for borders, and hedges to give some privacy.

Height: 5-7 feet

Flower Type: 3 inches, down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

6. Matrix (Asiatic, dwarf, pot)

Dwarf variety, good for indoor planting as it does not need too much care apart from regular watering and lots of sunlight. When planted outdoors, the perennial plant will multiply, but is not invasive.

Height: Up to 2 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, upright, wide open, star-shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

7. Manitoba Morning (Martagon)

Can grow in most well-drained soils, with enough sunlight, but cannot survive waterlogged conditions. Once mature, each plant grows around 30-50 flowers each season.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 3 inches, down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-7

8. Flashpoint (Orienpet)

As the name implies, it is a vivid lily variety that draws attention to itself, making it suitable for fancy borders and small mixed flower gardens. Scented flowers bloom late in summer.

Height: 3-5 feet

Flower Type: 6-9 inches, side-facing, open, slightly recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 5-9

9. Black Out (Asiatic)

Dark red flowers may also appear black at times, growing in groups of 5-6 on each stalk. Perfect for adding brightness and drama to any garden.

Height: 2-4 feet

Flower Type: 6-12 inches, up-facing, wide open, flat

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

10. Claude Shride (Martagon)

Mahogany red flowers are marked with golden or orange spots. May take a couple of years to flower for the first time, but stays on for years once established.

Height: 3-6 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, downturned, pendant shaped, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

F) Types of Yellow Lilies

1. Tiny Bee (Asiatic, dwarf)

Dwarf variety originally created for container planting, it can thrive in outdoor gardens as well. The plant’s short height and hardy nature makes it suitable for borders and flowerbeds.

Height: up to 1.5 feet

Flower Type: 5-6 inches, upright, open

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

2. Robert Swanson (Orienpet)

Produces up to 40 mildly scented flowers per plant in a blooming season in late summer. Easy to grow, the attractive flowers are quite long lasting.

Height: 4-5 feet

Flower Type: 7 inches, side or down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

3. Luxor (Asiatic)

Fast-growing and hardy, these plants flower for years once established. Good for mass planting, and cut flowers too.

Height: 3-4 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, upward-facing, slightly recurved, trumpet-shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

4. Black Spider (Asiatic)

Small to medium cream-burgundy flowers stand out in any type of a garden. Each stalk produces 5-7 showy flowers.

Height: 3 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, side or up-facing, open, flat

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-9

5. Citronella (Asiatic)

One of the few varieties of Asiatic lilies to produce pendant flowers, each plant produces up to 20 flowers, multiplying over the years.

Height: 4-6 feet

Flower Type: Around 6 inches, side or down-facing, recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-9

6. Golden Splendor (Trumpet)

Tall plants good for borders in areas of garden where you might want a little privacy, though may need a little support from nearby shrubs. Produces 12-20 flowers on each stem.

Height: 4-6 feet

Flower Type: 6 to 12 inches, side-facing, trumpet shaped

USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-8

7. King Pete (Asiatic)

A truly versatile lily variety, this plant produces different shaped flowers for a unique effect. Grows in groups of 6-7 flowers per stem.

Height: 2-4 feet

Flower Type: 3-6 inches, side-, up-, or down-facing, flat open or recurved

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8

8. Big Brother (Orienpet)

The largest lily type yet, big brother grows over a foot across, with its fragrant flowers being good for cut flowers too. The bloom size increases over time as the plant gets better established. Unlike the others. this plant grows multiple stems from a single bulb.

Height: 4-6 feet

Flower Type: Up to 15 inches, upright, wide-open, slightly recurved


Plant Calculator

Fall is a great time for planting lilies. Lily "bulbs" are actually tubers composed of fleshy scales and lack a protective covering. Unlike true bulb flowers, they never go completely dormant and should be handled carefully since they loose moisture very quickly. Essentially, you can plant your new lilies anytime before the ground freezes. The most natural location for lilies is on sloping ground with excellent drainage. It's a good idea to place them with other low plants which can provide shade for the bulb and root system. Prepare the soil with large amounts of organic matter such as leaf mold or compost. Plant with the roots downward and the scales upward. After planting, water well two or three times before freezing. Lilies are most effective when planted in groups of three or more. Space them about a foot apart - they will spread and fill this space in no time!

Versatile Asiatic Lilies are great for beds and borders, planted among shrubs, along walls, or in containers. They are incredibly easy to grow and few garden pests trouble them. For best results, plant your lilies where they will have good drainage and mix some leaf mold or compost into the soil. Lilies prefer to have their blooms in the sun and their roots in the shade. Try planting them among annuals or perennials that will keep their roots cool. Always allow the leaves on the stalk to turn yellow and fall off as part of the lily's natural growth process. This ensures that the bulbous underground part of the plant has gotten enough nourishment and will mean greater growth next year. Each year watch their beauty increase as they multiply!

There are literally thousands of lily varieties and hybrids on the market today. Some of our most popular varieties include Tiger Lilies, Oriental Lilies, and Trumpet Lilies.


Watch the video: 20 Best Shade Perennials - Perennial Flowers for Shade


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