It's great when an apple orchard is laid out near the house or at their summer cottage: in the spring the air is filled with the wonderful aroma of delicate flowers, and from mid-summer to late autumn you can feast on crispy juicy apples and make supplies for the winter! But even experienced gardeners sometimes have questions: how to grow an apple tree so that it produces rich harvests every year, does not grow, does not freeze in winter, is not exposed to common diseases and pests, and so that the fruits are of excellent quality?
We decide on the variety of apple trees and choose a place for planting
Consider the main stages of growing apple trees, taking into account important nuances, thanks to which you can get the desired result, even if you have not dealt with fruit trees before.
When choosing varieties, please note that most of them need pollen from other apple trees of other varieties for fertilization.
Once you have made the decision to create an apple orchard, start studying information about the different varieties of apple trees. Think about which apples you like best: honey-sweet, sour-sweet or well-expressed sourness, with loose or firm flesh, small or large? Do you plan to use them immediately fresh, put them in storage for a long time or use them for making various jams, preserves, compotes, juices, etc.?
Apple tree care video
Ideally, it is advisable to plant summer varieties that can be harvested as early as late July, autumn varieties that ripen in September, and winter varieties that are best suited for long-term storage. So you will not only provide yourself with fresh apples from mid-summer to mid-autumn, but you will not be left without a crop even in case of severe frosts.
When choosing varieties, please note that most of them require pollen from other apple trees of other varieties for fertilization. However, if apple trees also grow in neighboring areas, your trees will not remain unpolished. Even one apple tree can bear fruit successfully thanks to cross-pollination by bees.
It is better to choose a sunny place for an apple tree, although trees in the shade can give a good harvest. The main thing is that the groundwater does not lie too close to the surface of the earth.
Preparatory work for planting an apple tree
Most of all, apple trees like gray forest, chernozem and loamy soils, light and well aerated, with weak acidity. Excessively acidic or alkaline, gravelly, stony, swampy soils are not suitable for growing apple trees. Sandy soils become suitable for this purpose after adding a lot of compost, peat, humus or clay soil, and coarse river sand must also be added to clay soils to provide the necessary aeration.
Saplings or seeds to plant apple trees?
By and large, it is quite possible to grow an apple tree from a seed, and you can be convinced of this from your own experience. However, no one guarantees that your efforts will not go to waste. Having spent a lot of time planting a seed and caring for a young tree, you end up running the risk of discovering that you have raised an ordinary game with little edible small fruits that are not at all like the apple from which the seed was taken. But in some cases, it is still possible to get high-quality fruits, especially if you graft a varietal apple tree to an annual tree grown from a seed.
If you do not want to waste time on such experiments and prefer proven ways, purchase seedlings of your favorite varieties on the market. It is better to take two-year-old seedlings, as they begin to bear fruit earlier. It is also worth noting that seedlings with bare roots must be planted immediately, but seedlings in pots can wait a while before planting.
It is quite possible to grow an apple tree from a seed, and you can be convinced of this from your own experience.
You can plant apple trees in the last days of April or from mid-September to mid-October. Autumn planting of apple trees is preferable, because the root system of the tree has time to recover and prepare for the growing season.
Planting apple trees with seedlings is as follows:
- even a month before planting, they dig holes for seedlings up to 60 cm in depth, up to 120 cm in diameter;
- the soil taken out of the pit is mixed with organic fertilizers, the bottom layer of soil is laid in a separate pile - it will go to form a roller around the planted apple tree;
- a strong stake is installed in the middle of the landing pit so that it protrudes about half a meter above the ground;
- a pit with a slide is covered with earth mixed with fertilizers and left until the seedling is planted;
- after a month, a depression of a suitable size for the root system of the apple tree is made in the settled soil;
- the seedling is carefully installed in the groove together, straightening the roots and tying the tree to the stake with a soft twine, while the root neck of the trunk should not be covered with earth;
- the roots of the seedling are covered with fertile soil, periodically shaking the tree to better fill the voids between the roots, the soil is lightly tamped;
- the planted tree is watered abundantly, and the surface of the earth is sprinkled with humus.
The planted tree is watered abundantly, and the surface of the earth is sprinkled with humus
After planting, the apple tree is watered every week until August and check if the twine does not cut into the bark. When growing vigorous apple varieties, the stakes can be removed two years after planting.
Further care of apple trees and harvesting of apples
Throughout the season, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments of apple trees against diseases and pests: it is imperative to spray trees with fungicides before budding and at the beginning of bud extension, and in the fall to whitewash the trunks and paint over the wounds on the trees with iron red lead.
Watering and loosening
On dry days, do not forget to water the apple trees abundantly, and after heavy rains, loosen the soil under the trees for better air flow to the roots. To do this, you can make punctures in the ground with a crowbar up to 40 cm deep at a distance of about half a meter from the apple tree trunk, or pierce the soil with a pitchfork without turning them to the sides. In hot weather, once a week in the evening, it is useful to water the trees by sprinkling, thereby clearing apple trees from pests and contributing to better crown development.
On dry days, do not forget to water the apple trees abundantly.
The first time the apple tree is fed at the end of April, scattering 500 g of urea or 10 buckets of manure around the tree. Then, at the beginning of the flowering of the apple tree, under the condition of hot dry weather, a liquid top dressing is introduced, including potassium sulfate, superphosphate and urea. Before and after feeding, it is advisable to water the soil under the apple tree for greater efficiency. During the period of pouring the apple fruits, they are fed with a solution of nitrophoska with the addition of dry sodium humate. In autumn, when the apples are all harvested, the last feeding is made with potassium sulfate and superphosphate. Depending on the weather, fertilizers are scattered on the ground or diluted in water and watered.
Do not miss the appropriate timing for pruning apple trees in the spring - it is important to have time to prune unnecessary branches before the start of sap flow. In the spring, rejuvenating pruning of the apple tree is carried out, branches damaged by frost, weakly fruiting and broken are removed. In addition, shoots are cut in order to form a crown of the correct shape.
In the spring, the next year after planting a seedling, it is time to start forming a crown in it according to a certain type, chosen at your discretion. It takes five to six years to form the crown, but as a result you get a neat apple tree, which is more protected from diseases and pests, bears better fruit and gives better quality apples.
Video about the formation of the apple tree crown
The timing of harvesting depends on what varieties of apple trees grow on your site. Removable ripeness of apples can be determined by how easily the stalks are detached from the branches, by the brown color of the seeds and by the color of the skin of the fruit - when the herbaceous green color changes to the color characteristic of the variety, apples can be harvested.
Preparing for winter
Before the onset of frost, you need to have time to clear the bark of apple trees from lichens and moss by treating the affected areas with copper sulfate; destroy pests hiding under the bark for the winter; remove branches broken or damaged by diseases; process all cuts, cracks and wounds with garden pitch, and whitewash the trunk. After the sanitary work, the land under the apple tree is cleared of plant debris, the soil is dug up and mulched with compost. Additionally, apple trees can be protected from frost by covering their trunks with tar paper or spruce branches.
How to prune a columnar apple tree for beginners - care in autumn and spring
Caring for apple trees involves feeding, watering, protection from diseases, and shelter for the winter. If everything is done correctly, then columnar varieties will delight you with high yields and fast growth.
In the first year after planting, the seedling gives 30-40 cm of growth at the crown and a large number of side shoots. At the bottom of the tree, leaves are formed from the buds, and immediately in the future a crop is formed. As a rule, in the first year of life, columnar varieties do not bear fruit, but subsequently they will yield a lot of crops and quite actively for 10-15 years.
Trees of the direction are characterized by active development of the trunk without powerful lateral branches. Form the column by regular trimming. Yes, this creates certain difficulties in care, but it allows you to get maximum yields, which are easy to remove from trees without the use of telescopic rods.
Is it possible to grow an apple tree from a seed and will it bear fruit
It would seem that varietal seedlings are not so expensive to try to grow apple trees on your own. Attempts to grow an apple tree from seed are explained by the gardener's desire to reproduce one of his favorite varieties (especially if the variety is rare), the intention to have their own rootstocks for grafting, the desire to save money on the purchase of seedlings, or just sports excitement "what if it works out?"
It is quite possible to get a tree from a seed, despite some difficulties with germination (germination at home takes up to 3 months). However, it should be borne in mind that the probability of obtaining both a tree with the properties of a mother apple tree and a slightly edible wild game is approximately the same. It is impossible to find out what will grow up in advance, and it will be possible to taste the fruits of one's labors not earlier than in 6–7, or even in 10–12 years.
Seedling apple trees - video
If you still manage to grow an apple tree with tasty fruits, it may turn out to be tall and not very convenient for pruning and harvesting (unlike purchased seedlings grafted onto low-growing rootstocks). But this is not a rule at all: sometimes semi-dwarfs and dwarfs are obtained from seedlings.
Apple-tree seedlings start bearing fruit late, but they grow faster than grafted ones, are distinguished by their strength and health.
When you get a tree that is unsuccessful in relation to the fruit, you should not be upset - you can graft a varietal cutting on a young apple tree. In general, the use of seed-grown rootstocks allows for more winter-hardy, hardy plants with a long lifespan. It is because of these qualities that apple seedlings are used by breeders.
Some apple seedlings are so good that they are presented as new varieties, for example, Seedling Titovka, Seedling Kravchenko, Seedling Pudovshchina, Seedling Solntsedara.
Varieties that spontaneously appeared from seedlings, in the photoRevealed in the Kushnarenkovsky experimental garden (Republic of Bashkortostan) in 1928 Found in the city of Minusinsk among seedlings from free pollination of an unknown variety, differs in winter hardiness Siberian variety with high winter hardiness and drought resistance The variety is distinguished by its yield, size and beauty of the fruit.
For teaching healthy, vigorous seedlings, the following are best suited: forest apple, as well as varieties of Pepin saffron, Brown striped, Chinese. Syantsy Antonovki often repeat the properties of the parent variety.
Planting dwarf apple trees in open ground
What time to plant
Planting a dwarf apple tree in open soil is practically no different from planting an ordinary apple tree. It is quite difficult to inoculate and grow a dwarf apple tree seedling with your own hands, since in this case you will need not only strength and time, but also certain knowledge. The easiest way is to buy a seedling from a nursery that deserves your trust. When purchasing a seedling from a random seller, you should be extremely careful not to buy ordinary game instead of a dwarf apple tree. Examine the seedling. Between the stem and the root collar of the plant, the correct seedling should have a clearly visible knee-shaped protrusion. This protrusion is the site of the graft with a fused cut above the grafted kidney. A grafted two-year-old seedling of a dwarf apple tree has at least 4 developed branches, there are large buds at their tips, while the stem does not exceed half a meter in height. And a two-year-old wild game seedling has many sharp branches on which there are no buds. The root system of a dwarf seedling should consist of small elastic roots, while it should be borne in mind that all wild seedlings have a taproot.
For the purchased seedling, the root system should be wrapped with a damp cloth, and wrapped on top with plastic wrap, this will protect the roots from possible injuries during transportation. Before directly planting a seedling in open soil, it is necessary to shorten its branches. Planting a bonsai seedling can be done at the beginning of the spring period or in the fall, while the plant is dormant.
Planting a dwarf apple tree in autumn
Seedlings are planted in open soil in autumn from the second half of September to mid-October, at which time the plant begins to enter a state of dormancy.
For planting, you should choose a well-lit area or one that is in partial shade. It must have reliable protection from drafts, while the groundwater must be located at a depth of at least 150 cm. Wet and loose soil is suitable for planting, it is also very important that it is saturated with nutrients, since the root system of such a tree is superficial, therefore " it cannot eat, penetrating into the deep layers of the soil. The best option for planting is medium or light loam.
The depth of the planting pit should reach 0.7 m, and its diameter - 0.6 m. When preparing the pit, the top layer of soil about 20 centimeters thick must be thrown aside. It should be combined with a pair of buckets of peat or humus, 0.7 kg of wood ash and 0.6 kg of superphosphate. A stake must be installed in the middle of the prepared pit, after which a mixture of the top layer of soil with fertilizers is poured around it with a mound. On top of this nutrient mixture, a layer of simple soil from the top layer is poured, its thickness should be equal to 20-30 mm. After that, a seedling should be installed on the hill. When its roots are carefully straightened, the hole must be covered with soil from the top layer not mixed with fertilizers. It should be noted that the grafting site after planting should rise 30 mm above the soil surface. You also need to remember that the roots of the seedling should in no case come into contact with the soil mixture in which the fertilizers are located, as this can lead to burns on them.When planting several seedlings, a distance of at least 300 cm should be observed between them.
When the apple tree is planted, you need to compact the soil well in the trunk circle, for this it must be trampled down. Then you need to retreat from the trunk about 50 centimeters and make a roller fifteen centimeters high. Then pour 2.5–3 buckets of water into the trunk circle. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the surface of the trunk circle must be covered with a three-centimeter layer of mulch (peat or humus). After that, the plant is tied to the peg.
How to plant a dwarf apple tree in spring
Planting a seedling of a dwarf apple tree in springtime should be done when the soil has already completely thawed, but the buds should not yet begin to bloom. It is recommended to prepare the planting pit in advance, even in autumn, while it will be necessary to add soil mixture with fertilizers to it. In winter, the soil will have time to settle well and compact, and the fertilizers will be able to dissolve during this time.
In spring, in the middle of the pit, it is necessary to install a stake, around which the soil is poured from the top layer with a mound. A seedling is installed on this hill and further planting is carried out according to the same plan as in the autumn.
Preparing seedlings and pits
For planting, choose a two-year-old tree 60-70 cm high with at least 3 shoots... Annual seedlings are also used, but they take root only if they are sufficiently developed. The root system of a regular plant has 3 branches 30–35 cm long and more.
A future crown is formed in the plants selected for planting.... With a sharp knife or pruner, cut off the top of the tree, retreating several buds (lateral branches will grow from them). The kidneys that look up are removed. 5-6 healthy buds are left, looking sideways and evenly spaced along the length of the seedling. Skeletal branches will form from them.
Directly before planting, the seedlings are placed in water for a day.
Important! The vast majority of apple trees require another variety growing nearby for pollination. And although some plants self-pollinate, they all produce more fruit in the vicinity of another tree. In this case, apple trees must bloom at the same time in order to pollinate each other.
The hole is dug 1-2 weeks before planting.... The diameter of the hole for tall and medium-sized varieties is 90-100 cm, depth - 60-70 cm, for dwarf ones - 90 and 50 cm, respectively. Digging a hole, the top fertile soil layer is set aside. If the soil is clay, sand is added (2: 1), if sandy - humus and peat (2: 1: 1).
Attention! A well-prepared planting pit provides the tree with nutrients for several years. Therefore, even for small annual seedlings, they dig a large hole.
The bottom of the dug hole is loosened by 20-30 cm and filled with a mixture from the upper fertile soil layer, humus, peat, compost (in a 1: 1 ratio) and mineral fertilizers (6 handfuls of superphosphate and 1 handful of potassium sulfate). The pit is filled with soil with a slide of 15–20 cm, leaving a margin for soil shrinkage. If the ground is dry, watered it with water.
Rejuvenation of old apple trees
For rejuvenation, it is necessary to cut off part of the apple tree in the fall, and not all the branches entirely. This process is carried out every 2 years, giving the plant a little rest, and so that in the future there will be a good harvest. First, remove all damaged shoots and lower branches located close to the ground.
Having skipped one growing season, cut off the other part of the trunk, removing crossing, spinning, shading branches
After another 2 years, they pay attention to the previous pruning and remove young growth
Fact! Sometimes it takes more than 5 years to rejuvenate a tree, at which time fruiting is greatly reduced. Before starting the procedure, the gardener must think over which branches will be removed and when.
Apple tree | Pitara Kids' Network
There was an old apple tree in the farm garden, which was so old that it had long since ceased to bear fruit. The only purpose he served was to provide refuge for sparrows, grasshoppers and squirrels in the surrounding area.
One day a farmer decided to cut down a tree. He felt that it had become completely useless. He also wanted to make furniture, and what better way to ensure the supply of wood from wood? The tree was still strong.
So, picking up a sharp ax, the farmer hit the roots of the tree.
Suddenly, among the multitude of creatures inhabiting the tree, great excitement arose. Grasshoppers, sparrows and squirrels came out of their homes and circled around the farmer. Please sir, they pleaded with him. “Have mercy on this tree. This is our only home. "
Apple Tree [Illustration by Shinoda A.P.]
But the farmer only hit the roots harder. “We promise to sing to you in the afternoon when you work. It would make your labors so much easier, ”the creatures implored.
But their cries were in vain. The farmer continued his task with single-minded concentration. He was in a hurry to finish the felling before noon. When he raised the ax once more, something in the hollow of the tree caught his attention. Hive. Looking closely, the farmer discovered that there was a lot of honey. He tasted honey. Ummmm, divine.
Suddenly, the farmer realized that the tree was not so useless after all. His hollow was the perfect place for a hive to rest, and if he removed the honey now, the bees would earn more. They certainly would not have given up on such an attractive residence.
“Hi, you're up there,” he announced, throwing the ax away. “I am keeping this tree alive. Now you can live in peace. "
Sparrows, grasshoppers and squirrels breathed a sigh of relief. What a blessing that the farmer found something useful on the tree! In the end, that was the only reason the tree was still standing.
358 words | 3 minutes
Readability: Grade 5 (children 10-11 years old)
Based on Flash-Kincaid readability ratings
Filed in: Fairy Tales
Tags: #farmers, #apples, #honey, #grasshoppers, #sparrows, #roots, #squirrels
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