Experienced gardeners know that tomato is a capricious vegetable and demanding to fulfill a large number of conditions. Therefore, it is grown mainly in seedlings. When the varieties are selected, and the seeds are purchased, the question of the timing of their sowing is actualized. How to determine good days for planting tomatoes for seedlings in 2018 and what factors should be taken into account in this case, let's try to figure it out in this article.
The timing of planting tomatoes for seedlings
Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings is the most significant stage in their cultivation. It is also very important to correctly determine the timing of this operation. If you plant the seeds too early (in January, February), then without additional highlighting, the seedlings will stretch out, they will be stunted. Premature transfer of seedlings into the soil will lead to a delay in development in the event of a cold snap or death of the plant during frost. A delay in transplanting seedlings over time threatens with a decrease in yield.
Determine the appropriate period for sowing tomato seeds for seedlings
The approximate number of sowing seeds can be easily calculated on your own, knowing several criteria:
- the length of the growing season for a particular variety;
- the optimal age of seedlings when they are planted in the ground;
- plant heat requirements;
- growing conditions (greenhouse, greenhouse, open ground);
- desired harvest time;
- seed germination period;
- climatic conditions of the region.
The exact timing of sowing tomato seeds for seedlings depends on a large number of factors.
It is recommended to transfer tomato seedlings to unprotected soil if three requirements are met:
- there is no chance of frost;
- the soil has warmed up enough (at least 12 aboutFROM);
- the average daily air temperature during the week is not lower than + 12-15 aboutFROM.
You can transplant seedlings into the greenhouse 2–2.5 weeks before the onset of the period with these conditions.
Experts believe that at the time of planting seedlings, it must reach a certain age, depending on the variety (more specifically, this information is given below). It is also necessary to build on it when planning the timing of planting.
If the tomato seedlings are completely ready for planting, but the weather has deteriorated sharply and there is no possibility of planting it in the ground, you can take some measures to prevent it from overgrowing and delay its development: reduce watering (as the leaves droop, water at the root with a couple of tablespoons) ; reduce the air temperature to 16-18 0С; use a drug that slows down the development of plants (for example, Athlete).
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that 5-7 days will pass from the moment of sowing the seeds to the emergence of tomato seedlings.
So, let's consider the calculation formula using the example of sowing a medium early variety of tomatoes in the climatic conditions of central Russia. The last frost ends here and the soil warms up to the optimum temperature for tomatoes in early June. It is better to transplant seedlings of these varieties at 55-60 days of age.
It turns out that if you planned to transplant 60-day-old seedlings into unprotected soil, for example, on June 1, then the seeds should sprout around April 1. Therefore, they need to be sown on March 23-25. The harvest will ripen in the 10th of July.
Healthy tomato seedlings, ready for planting in the ground, have a thick, resilient stem and at least 6-8 dark juicy leaves
Video: when to sow tomato seeds for seedlings
Choosing days for planting tomato seedlings according to the lunar calendar
Many gardeners, when planning the timing of planting seeds, analyze not only calendar dates and weather, but also take into account the movements of the moon. After all, even our ancestors believed that the night star has an impact on all living organisms. Traditionally, it was believed that seeds planted on a full moon, new moon or two days close to them simply will not sprout. Plants with underground fruits (for example, potatoes or carrots) are best planted on a waning moon, the rest on a growing one.
The tomato bears fruit above the ground, it follows that the seeds should be sown after the new moon... In accordance with the lunar calendar for 2018, the moon will "grow" in the following periods:
- February - from 16 to 28;
- March - from 17 to 29;
- April - from 16 to 28.
On the day of the full moon, gardeners are advised to refrain from all work related to planting.
The sowing calendar indicates favorable and forbidden days for sowing, picking and transplanting different crops into the soil. It is compiled for each year, not only taking into account the specific phases of the moon, but also focuses on finding the silver satellite of the earth in various signs of the zodiac. At the same time, Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces are considered the most fertile signs, and Aries, Aquarius, Gemini, Leo and Virgo are considered barren.
Whether to follow the advice of the sowing calendar or be skeptical about them is an individual matter. But the fact that the night star in its different phases is capable of influencing the behavior of water molecules in plants is scientifically proven.
It is believed that on "good" days, plant growth and sap flow in plants is activated, so the seedlings grow strong and powerful. Seeds planted on prohibited days have a low germination rate, and seedlings transplanted on these days do not take root well and often die.
Table: sowing calendar for tomatoes for 2018
|Days of the month||February||March||April||May||June|
|Favorable||18, 22, 25–26||21, 25–26||18, 20–22, 27–29||19, 26–27||9–10, 21, 23–24, 29|
|Unfavorable||2, 3, 9, 10||8–10, 13–15||9–11, 14, 23–26||1–13, 17–18, 20–25, 30||1–7, 18–20, 27, 30|
|Forbidden||15–17||2, 16–18, 31||15–17, 30||14–16, 29||12–14, 28|
Personal bitter forced the author of this article to continue to take into account the position of the star in the sky when sowing seeds for seedlings. As a beginner in gardening, I planted seeds on those days when I had free time for this. It so happened that sometimes the seedlings sprouted very poorly, grew slowly, and were weak. After consulting with experienced neighbors, I found out that my planting dates coincided with the full moon. Now, at the beginning of winter, I try to plan all garden work according to the sowing calendar. And this approach gives positive results. As for sowing tomato seeds for seedlings, I carry out this procedure in two stages: I sow mid-ripening varieties in mid-March, and early varieties in early April. Conditions in the south of Ukraine make it possible to plant tomato seedlings in the open air in mid - end of May (taking into account the weather).
Dependence of the timing of sowing tomatoes for seedlings on their variety
What influence does the choice of tomato variety have on determining the best season for planting seedlings? The answer is very simple: different varieties have different duration of the growing season, that is, the time interval during which the plant is formed from the moment the seeds are pecked to harvest. In tomatoes, this interval can range from 80 to 140 days.
Some gardeners try to sow tomato seeds as early as possible (in late January - early February), believing that more "adult" seedlings will bear fruit better. However, you need to know that overgrown seedlings take root worse. For tomatoes, as well as for other plants, there is an ideal age for planting in soil.
Different varieties of tomatoes will have different optimal age of seedlings for planting them in the ground, and it will also be necessary to sow seeds at different times, which can be determined by substituting this parameter into the formula described above.
Table: classification of tomatoes by ripening time and popular varieties
|Name||Ripening period, days||The optimal age of seedlings for planting, days||Popular varieties and hybrids|
|Ultra early ripening varieties||80–85||40–50||Cherry stream F1, Children's sweetness, Lark F1, Olya F, Sanka|
|Early ripe||90–95||50–55||Leader of the Redskins (Sugar Bison), Leopold F1, Prima Donna F1, Tsar Bell|
|Medium early||100–103||55–60||Blagovest F1, Faithfulness F1, Verlioka plus F1, Giant of the Moscow Region, Moscow pear, Moscow delicacy|
|Mid-season||100–115||60–65||Budenovka, Konigsberg, Kostroma F1, Siberian miracle, Boyfriend, French bunch|
|Late ripening||120–130||70–80||Bullheart, Vladimir F1, De Barao, Titan, Date, Finish|
It turns out that medium- and late-ripening varieties of tomatoes will have to be sown on seedlings almost a month earlier than early varieties.
The timing of the ripening of tomatoes determines not only a favorable period for planting, but also allows you to assess whether it is possible to grow tomatoes in the open field or in a greenhouse. So, early maturing and mid-early varieties can be grown in a greenhouse, under a film or in the open field. But mid- and late-ripening tomatoes are recommended to be placed in greenhouses so that the first autumn frosts do not damage the crop.
Low-growing tomatoes ripen faster, so you can plant them for seedlings later.
Another sign to consider is the type of tomato growth. Everyone knows that they are "short" and "tall". However, you will not find such terminology on a bag of seeds. Manufacturers use the traditional scientific terms "determinant" and "indeterminate". The main difference between these groups of varieties is that indeterminate (tall) varieties do not stop growing during the growing season and look like vines reaching more than 2 m in height. The growth of determinant (undersized) tomatoes is limited and stops at a certain moment, the plant is formed not like a liana, but like a bush.
Tall tomatoes take a long time to build up a green "mass", so they belong to the group of late-ripening varieties that are recommended to be transferred to the ground later, but to sow on seedlings earlier.
Video: how to determine the date of sowing tomatoes
Sowing dates of tomatoes for seedlings in the regions
The instructions on the seed packaging regarding the timing of their sowing are only guidelines and do not take into account the conditions in your area. In addition, rapid climate change is forcing gardeners to take into account not only calendar dates, but also weather forecasts. Even in the same area, the sowing can be shifted by 1–2 weeks annually. Consider the features of choosing the average planting dates for tomatoes in some regions.
When to sow tomatoes for seedlings in the Moscow region
Tomatoes in the Moscow region begin to be sown for seedlings from the 20th of February until almost the beginning of April. Such a discrepancy in dates arises from the characteristics of different varieties of tomatoes and is associated with the choice of a planting site. The continental climate allows you to easily grow early and mid-season tomato varieties in the open field, and if you want to get the harvest earlier, you can use film shelters. But still, for growing in unprotected soil, gardeners prefer to choose undersized determinant varieties, but the conditions of the greenhouse will allow them to get a good harvest of indeterminate varieties.
The most productive varieties for the Moscow region are:
- for growing in a greenhouse: Blagovest F1, Poisk F1, Ilyich F1, Typhoon F1, Hurricane F1, Sprinter F1, Kronos F1, Pisa F1, Samurai F1, Machaon F1;
- for open ground: Iceberg, Federico, Merry gnome, Tamara, Siberian trump card.
The Iceberg tomato belongs to early ripening varieties. The plant practically does not need pinching and is intended for planting in open ground
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in the Kuban
When growing tomatoes in the Kuban, it must be borne in mind that the Krasnodar Territory covers a vast area with various climatic conditions. The Kuban River divides the territory into 2 unequal parts:
- northern - flat with an arid climate (occupies 2/3 of the region);
- southern - foothill and mountainous with a large amount of precipitation.
And if the humid subtropical climate of the south is natural for tomatoes, then the arid conditions of the flat part of the Krasnodar Territory require the selection of special varieties of tomatoes that are characterized by drought tolerance, with dense foliage that protects the fruits from the scorching sun.
Tomato variety Gift of the Kuban was bred for open ground in the southern regions, including the Krasnodar Territory
In general, many Kuban gardeners grow tomatoes in a seedless way, sowing seeds in unprotected soil in mid-April. Those who nevertheless decided to tinker with seedlings start sowing in early February.
Table: zoned varieties of tomatoes for the Kuban
|Middle ripening varieties|
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in Karelia
Tall mid-ripening tomatoes in northern conditions are sown no earlier than mid-late March. Earlier stunted in late March - early April. Seedlings are relocated to the greenhouse in mid - late May, in open ground under a film - in the first decade of June.
The short summer orients the inhabitants of Siberia to the cultivation of early and mid-early varieties of tomatoes.
The Snowdrop tomato variety got its name for its excellent cold resistance. It is perfect for growing in the open field of Karelia
When to sow tomato seeds for seedlings in Bashkiria
In Bashkortostan, the weather is very changeable. So, warm weather in May can be misleading, but in early June the last frosts can be disappointing. It can be quite difficult to predict them, therefore gardeners planted tomato seedlings in open ground in several stages: a smaller part of it is placed in the beds in the 20th of May, and most of it is planted starting from the 10th of June. Consequently, sowing seeds for seedlings is also carried out in several approaches: in the middle - end of March and in early April. At the same time, early and mid-early varieties are best adapted to the conditions of this region:
- White filling;
- Siberian early ripening;
- Ground Gribovsky;
- De Barao;
- Giant Novikov;
- Gina and others.
Tomatoes Gigant Novikova are medium in maturity and are intended for growing in greenhouses and hotbeds
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in the Leningrad region
Winter in this region is longer and spring is long. The possibility of frost can persist until the second decade of May. Therefore, it is better to move tomato seedlings into open ground in early June and protect them with film shelters. Therefore, sowing seeds is in the 20th of March. If the planting will be carried out in a greenhouse, then sowing should be carried out in early March.
The following varieties of tomatoes are better suited for planting in the Leningrad Region:
- Early ripening Leningradsky;
- Autumn Leningradsky;
- Apple tree;
- Pharaoh F1;
- Dobrun and others.
The Leningrad early ripening tomato is intended for summer residents of the Leningrad region. The yield characteristic is convincing, in spring greenhouses (unheated) they are removed from the bushes at 13.7 kg / sq. m. early ripe tomatoes
Dates of sowing tomato seeds for seedlings in Ukraine
The temperate climate of Ukraine creates favorable conditions for a rich tomato harvest. In the south, both low-growing and tall varieties are grown, in the central and northern regions, determinant tomatoes are preferred. Depending on the agro-climatic conditions, the territory of Ukraine can be conditionally divided into 3 zones:
- Polesie: includes the northern regions of Ukraine;
- forest-steppe: covers the central regions;
- the steppe is the southern region.
For each of these zones, its own terms of sowing tomatoes for seedlings are recommended:
Table: timing of sowing tomatoes for seedlings in Ukraine
|Early||7-22 March||March 2-14||February 21 - March 2|
|Mid-season||March 28 - April 11||March 28 - April 11||March 17 - April 6|
|Late ripening||April 11-21||April 11-21||April 6-16|
Reviews on the timing of sowing tomato seeds for seedlings in the regions
So, having calculated the optimal timing of planting tomatoes in your region, you can safely proceed to action. Seeds sown on time, subject to the rules of care, will give strong, viable seedlings. And this is half the success on the way to a good harvest. A little care for an adult bush, and self-grown tomatoes will become the pride of your site.
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in 2020: sowing seeds, growing and care
We continue the gardening theme, and today we will find out when it is better to plant (sow) tomatoes for seedlings in 2020 according to the lunar calendar (favorable and unfavorable days), how to choose tomato seeds for seedlings, how to prepare seeds for planting and how to sow tomatoes correctly for seedlings at home and transplanted into a greenhouse, and we will also tell you one very popular method of planting tomatoes without soil in twists. In order not to lose the article - add it to your bookmarks and share with your friends using the buttons of social networks. I also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the recommendations on when to plant eggplants, potatoes, strawberries, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, peppers according to the Lunar calendar, as well as the general lunar sowing calendar for 2020 for gardeners and gardeners.
Timely sowing of tomatoes directly affects their germination, and acceptable conditions must be created for these works. The full growth of plants depends on many factors, including the area of cultivation, the place of planting, the variety, and accompanying care. How and when to plant (sow) tomatoes for seedlings according to the lunar calendar in 2020 and whether it is possible to plant tomatoes along with eggplants and peppers, we will figure it out in more detail - by correctly distributing our forces, it is possible to achieve abundant fruiting of this wonderful vegetable.
How to prepare soil for planting tomato seedlings
On a bucket of peat, you should take half a bucket of sand and a liter can of ash. Instead of ash, you can take a 0.5 liter jar of chalk or a glass of lime or dolomite. Peat is sold in shops for gardeners, sand and chalk can be found in construction departments. Instead of peat, you can use coconut substrate - one briquette per bucket of water). It is better to pour boiling water over a briquette of coconut substrate for swelling (again for disinfection), and then cover with a lid to cool completely.
Such soil for tomato seedlings does not contain mineral fertilizers, so you need to add 3 tablespoons of complex mineral fertilizer to a bucket of peat. Tomato seedlings at home will grow better if the seedlings are watered not with water for irrigation, but with a weak raster of such fertilizer. 1 teaspoon of fertilizer for seedlings is diluted in 3 liters of water. Liquid fertilizer can be used. Complex fertilizers contain not only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but also trace elements.
How to determine the sowing date
It is very important to correctly determine the sowing time for seedlings.
- If the sowing of seeds is performed earlier than the optimal time, the tomatoes will become strongly stretched, thinner and even may fall to the ground. Such seedlings, as usual, are quickly affected by diseases and die.
- If you delay and sow the seed later than recommended, then with the arrival of the planting date, the plants will not have time to get strong and develop enough. Transplanted to a permanent place, such seedlings do not adapt well and take root with difficulty. They are weakened, get sick for a long time, are affected by diseases and, as a result, do not bring a good harvest.
There are early ripening, mid-ripening and late varieties of tomatoes, with the entry into fruiting on day 80, 105 and 130 days from germination, respectively. Seedlings are planted in open ground at the age of 40-60 days, already with outlined buds. Based on these dates, the gardener calculates the date of sowing the seed.
Video: when to sow tomatoes for seedlings in the Middle Lane from Koneva Elena.
Many vegetable growers calculate the time of sowing seeds for seedlings according to the Lunar calendar. In this case, the early maturation of the cultivated variety is also taken into account. There is no point in sowing early varieties early. The planting time for such varieties is usually planned for the last days of April - early May.
Planting tomatoes in February 2019
In February, residents of the southern regions start planting seeds for seedlings to grow tomatoes in greenhouse conditions. Late and mid-late varieties are sown first. It is during this period that the favorable days of March 16 and 17 fall. The moon will be in the growth stage. For early maturing varieties, it is worth waiting until the end of the month - there are also several favorable days there, but sowing will have to be carried out on the waning moon. You can take a chance, but there will be nothing wrong with the shift of dates to later ones.
For the middle lane, sowing tomatoes for seedlings in February is too early. There is a great chance to get overgrown, and strongly elongated seedlings, which will be very difficult to take root after disembarking to a permanent place.
Lobelia seeds are very small and look more like sand. Planting them on seedlings with needles and toothpicks is very problematic. The easiest sowing method is mixing with river sand, the seeds and the sand itself are first treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Places of sand, you can take the remnants of natural coffee.
The classic landing algorithm is as follows:
- A small moat is made on the surface, the depth of which does not exceed 0.5 cm.
- Spread the seeds with the additive.
- Lightly sprinkle the planting with a thin layer of soil.
- Press lightly on the new layer.
There are several other methods that can help simplify the lobelia planting procedure.
- Landing in the snow. Containers for seedlings are prepared traditionally: they are filled so that 1-1.5 cm remains to the edge. A small layer of snow is poured on top. Sprinkle seeds on top. As the snow melts, the seed will sink to the required depth.
- The use of peat tablets. Initially, the tablets are placed in a solution of potassium permanganate for swelling. Seeds are placed inside, sprinkled with a thin layer of sand and covered with a plastic bag.
- Tea bags. This method can only be used for lobelias. The seeds are mixed with teapots. The bags are constantly moistened until germination. When the sprouts appear, the bags are opened.
Peat containers can be used exclusively for obtaining young sprouts before picking. A large amount of nutritional components is harmful to the flower, since the plant may subsequently not bloom for a long time.
People in the villages are planting large plantations of different cultures. No one particularly pays attention to which end is the correct way to put the grain on the garden bed. It's not that important. They sow flat and get a good harvest. The main thing is to prepare quality seeds and know when to plant zucchini in open ground and for seedlings.
The Iskander variety does not like chlorine-added fertilizers. Farmers advise, in order to get a high yield of this variety, to feed twice: when it begins to bloom and when the fruits appear. And also, when the zucchini blooms, the bushes need to be sprayed with a sugar solution with the addition of boric acid. This will please the insects and increase pollination.