Secrets of successful cherry grafting: instructions for carrying out in different ways and on different rootstocks

Secrets of successful cherry grafting: instructions for carrying out in different ways and on different rootstocks

Many people know that grafting a fruit tree is the easiest way to multiply varieties, increase yields and improve the quality characteristics of fruits. In addition, this procedure allows you to solve the common problem of lack of space on the site. Indeed, several different varieties or even types of trees can be placed on one trunk. Beginners often ask themselves: are there any contraindications to cherry grafting. In fact, cherries are grafted very easily. Everyone can perform this operation after reading this article.

Why plant cherries

Grafting is an agrotechnical method of vegetative propagation of fruit trees. It consists in transferring a part of one plant to another plant in order to grow together and form a single organism with new characteristics. The first is called a scion - it includes that part of the tree that is above the ground and will bear fruit in the future. Its properties determine the quality of the fruit and the yield. The underground part, that is, the root system and the base of the stump, is called the stock. The further functioning of the plant depends on its resistance.

The practical value of vaccination lies in the fact that it makes it possible to solve a number of problems:

  1. Preservation of varietal qualities. Seed propagation of most cherry varieties does not allow the young plant to inherit all the characteristics of the mother.
  2. Acceleration of the formation period of the first harvest. The grafted trees begin to bear fruit as early as 2-3 years after grafting. Whereas plants grown from seed take 5–8 years.
  3. Garden rejuvenation. Old trees that have lost their former productivity are pruned and grafted with fresh cuttings.
  4. Increased resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors. Vaccination allows you to combine capricious to weather conditions garden varieties with their wild unpretentious relatives, thereby increasing the plant's endurance.
  5. Combination of properties of different varieties in a single sample.
  6. Saves space in the garden. On one trunk, shoots of various varieties of cherries can grow.

A broken tree can be saved by grafting if its roots are alive.

Video: why do you need to plant fruit trees

When to graft cherries: timing of grafting

There are two time points for a successful vaccination:

  • in spring - early March - first ten days of April;
  • in summer - the second half of July - mid-August.

Specific terms depend on the climate of the region and the chosen method of operation.

However, the experience of gardeners shows that the optimal period is still early spring - at the very beginning of active sap flow. At this time, the likelihood of successful fusion is very high.

In summer, the vaccination is carried out when the active growth of the branches stops. This is done with green cuttings, but the effectiveness is significantly reduced, since the wood fiber increases and the contact of the cambial layers of the plant stops.

Vaccinations are sometimes carried out in late autumn. Under the condition of prolonged thaws, partial accretion of the rootstock and scion occurs, but finally it ends in early spring.

In winter, the tree is dormant and slows down metabolic processes, so it is not recommended to graft it.

How to graft cherries: basic recommendations and methods of grafting

In order for the surgical intervention to be effective, you need to take into account the main rules of vaccination:

  1. The operation is carried out with a special tool - a grafting knife. It is important that it is sharpened to a shaver condition. Otherwise, irregularities may remain on the cuts, affecting the density of contact between the scion and rootstock.

    There are two types of grafting knives: copulating (a) and budding (b)

  2. To prevent the introduction of fungus, all devices must be disinfected.
  3. All actions must be performed as quickly as possible. On the slices, juice appears, which is quickly oxidized in air, which negatively affects fusion.
  4. If the stock is located in the open sun, after the procedure, the graft site must be shaded. This will reduce the risk of burnout of the grafts that take root.

There are many ways to graft fruit trees, but cherries take root better if tinted with one of the following three methods: bud grafting, bark grafting, and split grafting.

Grafting with a cuttings for bark on cherries

Grafting for the bark is carried out at the initial stages of sap flow, when the bark easily lags behind the wood. It is often used when the diameters of the rootstock and scion are significantly different. Vaccination in this way is carried out as follows:

  1. 2 to 4 cuttings are prepared, depending on the thickness of the rootstock. A cross section is made on the base of the workpiece.
  2. The stock is cut with a hacksaw and cleaned with a knife.
  3. Longitudinal cuts of no more than 5 cm are made on the bark.

    The bark cuts are made with a very sharp knife without damaging the wood.

  4. The bark leaves move apart, the scion is inserted so that its cut fits snugly against the rootstock wood.

    If the rootstock diameter allows, up to 4 cuttings can be made per bark

  5. The inoculation is wrapped and covered with pitch.

How to bud a cherry

Professionals call this method budding. It is carried out on a young branch of any size by transferring the axillary bud of the cherry to the stock. Vaccination is carried out as follows:

  1. The buds are harvested immediately before transplantation: the eyes are cut from the cutting along with a piece of bark (shield) 1.5–2 cm long.

    The kidney is cut off with a sharp knife

  2. A T-shaped incision is made on the bark of the stock.
  3. The incision is gently pulled apart, a kidney is inserted into it and pressed with a bark pocket so that only the eye remains outside.

    Putting the kidney behind the bark

  4. The transplant site is wrapped with electrical tape so that the kidney is in the air.

This method of grafting is considered the safest for the tree. Even if the kidney does not take root, the bark incision will heal rather quickly.

Cleavage grafting

Inoculation into cleft is called rejuvenating by many - a young stalk is attached to the end of a completely eliminated branch or trunk. This method is used when the thickness of the stock is several times the thickness of the cutting.

The cleft grafting gives the best survival rate: out of ten operations, nine are effective.

It is advisable to carry out the procedure before the beginning of the growing season of the plant, i.e. in early spring. To inoculate cherries in this way, you must:

  1. Prepare a stalk with 3-4 buds. Cut its base with a knife into a double wedge.
  2. Cut the stock to the required height and clean it.
  3. With a sharp knife or a hatchet, split the stock in the center by no more than 10 cm.

    To prevent the incision from closing, a small spacer can be inserted into it.

  4. In the place of the split, insert the scion so that its bark coincides with the bark of the rootstock. If the thickness of the latter allows, then 2 cuttings can be brought into the split at once.

    The stalk is deepened so that its cambial layers coincide with the stock

  5. Wrap the inoculation site tightly with a rope or tape and process with a pitch.

How long will the vaccination take

Whether the vaccination was successful can be seen after one and a half to two weeks. The growth of buds on the scion will serve as a sign of survival. By the end of summer, shoots from 20 cm to 1 m long will grow from them.

It is not recommended to remove the tape during the year, because at this time a callus influx will form at the vaccination site - a seal that resembles a corn.

The efficiency of the performed surgical operation can be judged by the first harvest, which will appear in 2-3 years.

Cherry stock: main types

The first step in the cherry tinting process is the selection and cultivation of the rootstock. They can serve as a wild or cultivated tree, the variety of which did not suit the gardener, or even root growth. The main thing is that the stock should be:

  • compatible with scion;
  • adapted to the climatic conditions of the region;
  • have a developed root system.

It is important to remember the seasonal characteristics of the rootstock and scion. It is not recommended to combine cuttings of late varieties with early stocks and vice versa.

And a few more nuances that need to be taken into account:

  1. Cherries do not take root well on old wood. Transplantation into young trees or branches will be more effective.
  2. The closer the relationship between cultures, the better the survival rate.

Cherry on a dwarf rootstock

Grafting cherries on a dwarf or dwarf stock is gaining in popularity. However, such a foundation has both advantages and a number of negative aspects.

Table: advantages and disadvantages of dwarf rootstocks

The height of dwarf cherries allows for easy harvesting

Popular types of low-growing clonal rootstocks:

  • VSL-1 - bred by hybridization of steppe cherry with Lannesian cherry. Compatible with all varieties of cherries. Fruiting begins 2-3 years after planting. The productive period is 15-18 years. It tolerates dense, waterlogged soils and drought well, and is resistant to root rot and bacterial cancer. Leaf diseases are not affected. Does not form root shoots. Frost resistance of roots is average.
  • VSL-2 - obtained by crossing bush cherry and serrata cherry. Suitable for almost all types of cherries. Winter and drought tolerant. Does not form root shoots. Resistant to root rot, coccomycosis and bacterial cancer. Has a well-developed root system.
  • Kolt - obtained from the pollination of sweet cherries by cherries not real. Cherry trees grafted on Kolt have 20–45% less crown sizes than on a vigorous rootstock. Trees begin to bear fruit early and give abundant, regular harvests. Promotes an increase in fruit size. Uterine bushes are pyramidal, of medium size. The number of shoots in the bush is average, they usually do not have lateral branches. Easily propagated by lignified cuttings. Kolt did not become widespread because of the very low frost resistance of roots, even for the southern zone, and a strong susceptibility to root cancer disease.

You can buy seedlings of dwarf rootstocks in specialized stores or nurseries.

Felt cherry as rootstock

Felt cherry is a fast-growing, drought-resistant and high-yielding bush plant. For this reason, it is often used as a rootstock for cherry plum, peach, plum and apricot. The crops grafted on it reach small sizes and begin to bear fruit as early as 3 years old.

One of the advantages of felt cherry as a rootstock is the complete absence of root growth.

Despite its close relationship, felt cherry is compatible only with some varieties of cultivated cherry.

It is not difficult to grow a stock from this tree. Most often it is done by seeds, as follows:

  1. Healthy-looking fruits are selected. The seeds are cleaned of pulp, washed well and dried in the shade. Stored in a glass container in a cool place.
  2. In early autumn, the seeds are mixed with sand and stored in the refrigerator.
  3. You can sow seeds in the ground before the onset of frost or in spring. The seeds are buried in fertile soil to a depth of 2 cm and sprinkled with a mixture of peat, sawdust, humus.

The next summer, with proper care, the seedlings can reach heights of up to 1 m.

How to plant cherries on cherries

Grafting cherries onto cherries will not be difficult even for novice gardeners. The efficiency of coalescence of individuals of the same species is very high. If cultivated cherries are combined with wild game as a rootstock, then the tree will receive endurance from it and will be adapted to the conditions of the local climate.

Combining several varieties on one trunk is also an excellent option, however, it is important to choose varieties with the same flowering time.

Cherry grafting on bird cherry

The bird cherry, which is widespread almost everywhere, is often used as a rootstock for cherries, especially in the northern regions, since it imparts frost resistance and resistance to many diseases to cherries. However, some varieties of cherries can be grafted only on a certain type of bird cherry - antipka.

Video: Antipka as a stock for cherries

Grafting cherries on the turn

Cherries work well with thorny thorns. But such a tandem will give the gardener a lot of trouble in the fight against root shoots.

Blackthorn or prickly plum adapts well to environmental conditions and transfers this quality to the scion

Is it possible to plant cherries on cherry plums

The combination of cherry with unpretentious cherry plum is possible. Such a stock gives the cherry frost resistance and endurance. However, the degree of survival between these cultures is much lower.

Video: turning cherry plum into cherry

Cherry grafting on plums

Plum is often used as a rootstock for cherries, as these stone fruits are characterized by high compatibility. It is believed that semi-wild plum seedlings are best suited because they have the ability to adapt to environmental conditions and are resistant to many diseases.

Cherry grafting is also practiced on varietal trees.

The combination of felted cherry and plum as a rootstock makes it possible to obtain a tree up to 3 meters high and with attractive white-pink flowers, which looks very much like sakura.

Video: grafting cherries on a plum into a split

Is it possible to plant cherries on an apple tree and a pear

Many years of experience of experimental gardeners trying to combine cherry with apple or pear shows that such a grafting is doomed to failure. Transplantation of stone fruit crops to seed crops is not possible. The explanation lies in the cousin relationship of these fruit trees: apple and pear belong to the Apple subfamily, and cherry to the Plum subfamily.

Are cherries grafted on rowan and sea buckthorn

The cherry scion does not take root on the rowan rootstock, even though these trees belong to the same botanical subfamily - Plum.

Sea buckthorn is not used as a scion for cherries.

So, cherry grafting is not a special magical rite. This is a fun creative process that even a beginner can master. The main thing is not to despair if the vaccine did not take root the first time. Persistence and patience will definitely lead to a positive result.

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The spring period is considered the most suitable time for grafting fruit trees, including cherries. The plant wakes up after the winter rest, nutrients move up the stem, which contributes to the rapid engraftment of the scion with the stock.

When to plant cherries in spring

The optimal period for grafting cherries in spring is from the beginning of March to the first ten days of April, that is, the time when the plant is just beginning to come out of dormancy. More specific terms are determined by regional climatic conditions. So, in the middle lane, the beginning of the transplantation process is shifted to the first days of April. The main criterion for the readiness of a tree for grafting is swelling of the buds, which indicates the beginning of sap flow.

You need to know that from this moment on, you have a short period of time for a successful vaccination (a week and a half) - the more active the movement of juices, the lower the effectiveness of transplantation. There are two reasons for this:

  • The juice on the slices is oxidized, an oxide film forms, which prevents engraftment. Therefore, spring grafting operations must be carried out as quickly as possible.
  • At a later date, an excess of nutrients and regenerative substances may prevent the tree from accepting the graft as part of the body.

There is a popular sign: vaccination work can begin when the ground thaws for two bayonets of a shovel.

There are over 130 grafting techniques, all suitable for grafting fruit trees in spring. For cherries, methods based on grafting with lignified cuttings harvested in late autumn are considered optimal during this period.

Chart: Best Spring Grafting Techniques for Cherries

Before starting the operation, pay attention to the condition of the stock tissues. If the wood is not white, but has acquired a brown hue, then the tissues are frozen. Such freezing may not affect the further life of the tree, but such a rootstock is no longer suitable for grafting.

Photo Gallery: Spring Cherry Grafting Techniques

Video: grafting cherry plums in spring

At what temperature are cherries grafted in spring

When choosing the time for grafting cherries in the spring, experienced gardeners are guided not only by the calendar, but also by the changeable weather conditions. Even in the same area, the timing can vary by 1–2 weeks annually. To prevent the vaccination from freezing, it is carried out when the risk of recurrent frost has passed. The optimal air temperature is considered to be above +5 0 С during the day and not below 0 0 С at night.

Summer and autumn plum grafting: how to plant a tree in summer and autumn

Only healthy cuttings can be grafted onto a healthy tree. Otherwise, the branch may not take root or not bear fruit. In addition, it is worth considering the compatibility of the breeds. Better, of course, to carry out a similar procedure between trees belonging to the same variety. For example, grafting a peach onto a plum can be successful.

According to biologists, this tree was obtained by crossing cherry plum and blackthorn. That is why grafting apricots on plums gives a positive result. The same cannot be said about sweet cherries or cherries. Plum can also be planted on cherry plum - this is the best option. The stalk in this case will take root very quickly. As for the thorn, it is popularly called the prickly plum. This plant can also be grafted with stone fruit varieties.

Apricot is another quality rootstock. The main thing is to choose the right place on the tree. In this case, it is worth remembering that some parts of the trunk and branches can be damaged by the tinder fungus.

The time factor in this case plays an important role. It should be borne in mind that when carrying out vaccination, timing matters. After all, each season has its own characteristics.

Plum grafting is usually carried out in the spring, since it is during this period that the circulation of juices in all plants is at a high level. If in the process the maximum contact between the rootstock and the cutting was created, then successful fusion is ensured. If this was not achieved, then the procedure can be repeated more than once.

If the grafting of the plum in the spring has failed, then it is carried out in the summer. Carefully selected cuttings still manage to take root and grow together with the stock. There is a chance that during the warm period, new branches will be able to grow a little.

Experts recommend using extreme caution when vaccinating in the fall. In this case, it is necessary to take into account that cold snaps during this period of the year can begin unexpectedly. The frosts that have begun can greatly harm the cuttings or destroy them irrevocably, without even allowing them to take root.

Now you can start directly with the vaccination:

  1. Insert the scion wedge tightly into the split (longitudinal cut) on the drain.
  2. Close up the edges of the grafting site with garden varnish.
  3. Wrap the graft tightly with garden varnish.
  4. Put a plastic bag on the grafted stalk, pulling off its ends with electrical tape under the graft. It will protect you from the bright sun and retain moisture.

The cultivation of plums on a personal plot is a common phenomenon among domestic gardeners. In order to root it in your own garden and wait for a full harvest, you need to clearly understand how to plant a plum, and what recommendations should be followed.

Plum grafting is an activity that is undesirable to undertake without proper preparation. This fruit plant requires a lot of attention from the gardener. In addition, you need to understand that such a procedure is not carried out solely at your request. There are certain times that are optimal for grafting young green cuttings.

Many novice gardeners are wondering when it is possible to start this lesson, and whether the time of year so influences the effectiveness of the procedure. In fact, this factor plays an important role: each season is characterized by individual characteristics that should be taken into account without fail.

Spring is considered the optimal time for grafting new branches onto a home plum. The thing is that with the onset of heat, the plant sap begins to actively circulate through the plant. This means that your stock will take root quickly. Carrying out such a procedure in the spring is also beneficial in that if the branch suddenly does not start growing, you can attach more than one such stalk, since you have plenty of time.

For those gardeners who, for some reason, could not start grafting plums in the spring, the summer period will be the optimal period. If the plants are not deprived of heat, then the likelihood that the young stalk will take root on the branch and grow strong enough before the onset of cold weather is high. Autumn is considered an undesirable period for vaccination.

Even if you attach a twig to a tree on a warm autumn day, soon a cold snap may come unexpectedly or even frost will begin. In this case, the stalk will suffer or not take root at all. That is why it is not recommended to vaccinate the tree in the fall. Plum grafting in spring or summer is the best choice for a domestic gardener.

Also note: the rootstock tree must be healthy, free from damage, resistant to severe weather conditions and various diseases.

Plums age very quickly. Therefore, you should not plant trees over 10 years old.

Proper care of the grafted plant is the key to a successful vaccination. Keep an eye on the strapping and loosen the strap periodically to prevent it from cutting into the wood.

Consider further actions in case of a successful vaccination and vice versa. By the way, whether the plum inoculation was successful can be judged after 2-3 weeks.

With the onset of summer, the tops of the scion are usually pinched.

Over time, "tops" (vertical shoots) and shoots are formed on the scion, which contribute to the thickening of the crown and weaken the grafting. They must be cut off.

Consider all the nuances, and you will get the desired result - a grafted plum, which after a few years will delight you with an abundant harvest of delicious fruits.

First of all, it should be noted that the vaccination is carried out only if there are healthy shoots and a healthy young tree. And in the second place, they choose which tree can still be grafted with a plum, except for the plum itself, in fact.

By far the best option for a Prúnus (from Latin for plum) would be grafting between trees of the same genus and variety. This increases the chances of adopting the cuttings as stock. But novice gardeners often have a lot of questions about whether it is possible to graft an apricot to a plum or how to graft a plum onto a blackthorn. Moreover, is it worth experimenting with crossing fruit trees, that is, is it possible to plant a plum on an apple tree or, for example, a pear.

Plum grafting on apricot, cherry plum, blackthorn

Biologists have scientifically proven that the formation of plums occurred by crossing cherry plum and blackthorn. That is why, if it is not possible to plant a plum on a plum, you can use cherry plum or blackthorn as a stock. Cherry plum is especially good, since it is quite strong, among other stone fruits. Sloe is distinguished by its particular frost resistance and unpretentiousness in terms of care, therefore, plum grafting on this crop is used more in the northern regions.

Plum grafting on apricots is also a common occurrence among amateur gardeners. In this case, it is important to carefully choose the tree and the place where the grafting will be done. It is not uncommon for the apricot tree to be affected by tinder fungus, which completely negates the positive result of "crossing" crops.

With regard to other trees (apple, pear, cherry, etc.), the opinions of experienced gardeners differ. Some are ready for bold experiments, while the latter, by their own example, were convinced that the probability of successful fusion is minimal. It is up to the gardener to decide whether or not to inoculate plums on another crop.

Of all the possible options, it is the plum grafting that is popular. This concept means the splicing of two parts. The first is an adult seedling or tree, on which the second part is actually planted. The place chosen is different: a branch, a trunk or even a stump, which still remains viable.

The reasons why you need to do this are listed below:

  1. It helps to replace old shoots with new ones and thus rejuvenate the plant.
  2. The yield increases significantly, and the fruits begin to ripen earlier.
  3. It becomes possible to create an unusual hybrid and enjoy the fruits.

All of these points will help make a significant contribution to the development of your garden and provide unexpectedly pleasing results.

  • In the butt.
    To do this, it is necessary to have a scion and rootstock of identical sizes, so that you can make a cut of the same slope and connect these two parts, fixing them and pouring them with a special pitch.
  • Into the cleft.
    The stock must be unhooked in the center with a sharp knife, making a depth of about 4 cm, and two more cuts must also be made at the bottom. Next, the stalk is inserted into the split so that its bark coincides with the stock. Then it is necessary to seal this place with electrical tape or polyethylene, and also cover it with garden pitch.
  • On the bark.
    In this case, a place is chosen closer to the branch, where more nutrients are concentrated, which will facilitate early engraftment. Everything is done quite simply: with the letter "t" you cut the bark of the tree, gently bend it and insert the graft with a cut.
  • On a stump or branch.
    It is this type of propagation of plums by green scions or cuttings that is the most common and simple. It is enough just to clean the branch cut with a pruner with a garden knife, cut the bark, bend it and place the scion itself under it with a cut to the wood. This place must be firmly pressed and sealed.

All these methods, and especially the last one, are distinguished by their effectiveness and high efficiency, therefore, even novice gardeners can use them.

  • harvesting cuttings in the spring or even worse - using cuttings harvested on the same day
  • use of fat shoots
  • wrong season (too cold)
  • winding of the cambium if the process takes too long.

Cherry grafting methods

Cherry grafting into cleavage

This is the simplest technique that any beginner can do. It is performed in cases where the stock differs from the scion in a large diameter. In a specially made split, you can insert from one to four cuttings (1-2 - in a single split, and 3-4 - in a cruciform). This increases the chances of grafting success and produces more shoots of the desired variety. The main thing is to wrap the graft well so that the cambium layers of the scion and rootstock are closely adjacent to each other.

Cherry grafting for the bark

This method is also not difficult to implement. For its application, it is important that the bark lags behind the wood without problems. That is why the vaccination should be done only with active sap flow. Several cuttings can be shoved behind the bark at once (their number is not limited). In this case, rather thick trunks or branches can be taken as a stock.

Copulation of cherries

This method is used only under one condition: when the diameter of the grafted shoots is practically the same. Most often, varietal seedlings are produced in this way. But re-grafting of mature trees using copulation is also possible.

Should I choose direct copulation or improved copulation?

For grafting cherries, it is better to use direct copulation. Despite the fact that it is inferior to the improved survival rate, it is the best option for stone fruits. The explanation for this choice is very simple: stone fruits are prone to gum flow, which manifests itself with various cuts and injuries. They need to be grafted quickly and accurately, without unnecessary cuts and manipulations. Otherwise, the vaccination site can easily become covered with gum, which can lead to the death of the scion.

Cherry budding

This operation is performed both in spring and summer. But it is more convenient to do it in the summer, when there is a petiole near the bud of the scion. During the vaccination process, a kidney with a shield is carefully taken for it. In addition, in the summer, budding grows together better than grafting with a cuttings. That is, this is the best way to summer vaccination.

Cherries are inoculated in a T-shaped cut without wood - this is a method that is also used on peaches and roses. It differs from standard budding only in that the flap is pulled out, and not cut out, separating without wood.

There are other ways in which you can plant cherries. We have considered only the most commonly used ones, which are affordable even for inexperienced gardeners. And although grafting cherries requires some preparation and special care, this does not mean at all that it is difficult to master it. Approaching the matter with love and having studied the topic well, everyone can learn to plant any fruit crops.

Watch the video: How to Save your fruit tree! Airlayering and grafting